Means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication.
Media that emphasize the news.
Promoting a particular position or an issue by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate and, until 2004 had not been subject to regulation.
The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
The process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases.
The process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages.
A close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.