five pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
a term meaning "protected peoples"; they included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians.
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
house of wisdom
a learning center established for translation and research of foreign texts, in Baghdad in 830 C.E. by Abbasid caliph al - Mamun
spiritual leaders of Shi'ah Islam, said to be direct descendents of Muhammad
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
"struggle in the way of God"
tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Muhammad Ibn Abdullah
The Prophet of Islam (570-632 C.E.)