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Emphatic verb tenses......

adds emphasis, can contain the word not, and can form questions.

What 2 forms do emphatic tenses take?

present tense and past tense

They do leave early.

present emphatic tense

Alan does swim daily.

present emphatic tense

I do the dishes every night.

present emphatic tense

Maria does follow the instructions.

present emphatic tense

They do not leave early.

present negative tense

Alan does not swim daily.

present negative tense

I do not wash the dishes every night.

present negative tense

Maria does not follow the instructions.

present negative tense

Do they leave early?

present tense question

Does Alan swim daily?

present tense question

Do you wash the dishes every night?

present tense question

Does Maria follow the instructions?

present tense question

They did leave early.

past emphatic tense

Alan did swim daily.

past emphatic tense

I did wash the dishes every night.

past emphatic tense

Maria did follow the instructions.

past emphatic tense

They did not leave early.

past negative tense

Alan did not swim daily.

past negative tense

I did not wash the dishes every night.

past negative tense

Maria did not follow the instructions.

past negative tense

Did they leave early?

past tense question

Did Alan swim daily?

past tense question

Did you wash the dishes every night?

past tense question

Did Maria follow the instructions?

past tense question

Progressive tenses

are used to talk about the actions that are in progress at a specific moment in time; they highlight the moment that the action is takes place.

Present progressive tenses are composed of the...

auxiliary verbs "to have", "to be", and "to do" + the present participle of the main verb (ing)

What 2 types of action does the present progressive tenses take?

1. actions happening now
2. actions occurring over a period of time which includes the present.

They are leaving.

present progressive

Alan is swimming daily.

present progressive

I am washing the dishes every night.

present progressive

Maria is following the directions.

present progressive

They left already.

simple past

Alan swam daily.

simple past

I washed the dishes every night.

simple past

Maria followed the directions.

simple past

They did leave.

past emphatic

Alan did swim daily.

past emphatic

I did wash the dishes every night.

past emphatic

Maria did follow the directions.

past emphatic

The past progressive tense.....

indicates continuing action, something that was happening, ongoing, at some point in the past.

The past progressive indicates a limited duration of time.....

thus an convenient way to indicate that something took place (in the simple past) while something else was happening.

They were leaving when it began to rain.

past progressive

Someone stole Alan's towel while he was swimming.

past progressive

I was washing the dishes when I accidentally broke a glass.

past progressive

Maria was following directions, but still managed to get lost.

past progressive

Progressive tenses.....

are used to talk about actions that are in progress at a specific moment in time; they highlight the moment that an action takes place.

Perfect tenses....

are compound tenses formed with the auxiliary "have" indicating that the action of the verb is complete.

I have eaten today.

present perfect

I had eaten before he came.

past perfect

I will have eaten before class.

future perfect

Present perfect tense...

is used to express an action that occurred at an unspecified time in the past or an action that started in the past and continues into the present.

Has Ali ever lived in Kabul?

present perfect, unspecified time in the past

Ali has lived in Kabul for four years.

present perfect, continues into the present

The present perfect is a compound tense form with the....

auxiliary "have" in the present tense + the past participle of the main verb (he has spoken, I have walked, we have written)

have written

present perfect of "to write"

has spoken

past perfect of "to speak"

will have walked

future perfect of "to walk"

Past perfect.......

is used to express an action that was completed in the past before another action or event which also occurred in the past.

She remembered (2) that she had forgotten (1) her keys.

remembered (simple past) had forgotten (past perfect) (Both actions 1 and 2 occurred in the past, but action 1 preceded action 2. Therefore, action 1 is in the past perfect.)

The past perfect is a compound tense formed.....

with the auxiliary "have" in the past tense (had) + the past participle of the main verb: I had walked, he had seen, etc.

They had moved (1) before school opened (2) in the fall.

Action 1 preceded action 2. Therefore, action 1 is in the past perfect.

Future perfect ....

is used to express an action that will be completed in the future before another action or event in the future.

By the time we leave (2), he will have finished (1).

Both actions 1 and 2 will occur at some future time, but action 1 will be completed before action 2 takes place. Therefore, action 1 is in the future perfect tense.

The future perfect is a compound tense formed with the....

auxiliary "have" in the future tense (will have) + the past participle of the main verb: I will have walked, she will have gone.

The future perfect is often used following expressions such as...

by then, by that time, by + a date

By the end of the month, he will have graduated.

future perfect tense

By June, I will have saved enough to buy a car.

future perfect tense

Ali is talking on the phone.

present progressive tense

We were trying to start the car.

past progressive tense

perfect tenses

are compound tenses formed with the auxiliary HAVE indicating that the action of the verb is completed.

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