Chapter 9: Properties of the Hair and Scalp

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trichology

the scientific study of the hair, it's deseases, and its care is

hair shaft

the two main divisions of the hair root and the

dermal papilla

the three main structures associated with the hair root are the follicle, bulb, and the

follicle

the hair root is contained in a tube-like depression, or pocket, in the skin

hair bulb

club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root

dermal papilla

the blood and nerve supply that provides nutrients needed for hair growth are contained in the

arrector pili

goose bumps, involutntary muscles

sebaceous glands

the oily substance called sebum is secreted by

medulla

the three layers of hair shaft are the cuticle, cortex, and

cuticle

layer of the hair shaft that protects it from penetration and damage

medulla

generally, only thick coarse hair contains

cortex

90% of total wieght of hair

cuticle

liquids can penetrate the hair only when the ___ is raised.

alkaline ph

in order to penetrate the cuticle layer and reach the cortex, oxidation haircolors, perm solutions, and chemical relaxers must have

cortex

the changes that take place in the hair during permanent waving, chemical relaxing, and oxidation hair coloring occur in the

keratin

as living cells in the hair mature, the y fill up with protien called

oxygen and sulfer

the elements that make up the amino acids in the hair are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen

carbon

of the five elements in the human hair, the element that makes up the highest percentage is

peptide bonds

the chemical bonds that join amino acids to each other are called

side bonds

the bonds that account for the strength and elasticity of the hair

hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds

there are three different types of side bonds in the cortex

disulfide bonds

strongest side bonds in the cortex

sulfer

a disulfide bond joins the ___ atoms of two neighboring cyctine amino acids to create cystine

perms and relaxers

disulfide bonds can be broken down by

water of heat

a hydrogen bond is a physical side bond that is easily broken by

eumelanin and pheomelanin

all natural hair color is based on the ratio of

pheomelanin

the pigment that provides natural hair colors from red and ginger to yellow/blonde is

cortex

all natural hair color is the result of the pigment located within the

wave pattern

the amount of movement in the hair strand is

oval

a cross-section of a wavy hair strand is

has a fine texture

extremely curly hair that forms coils usually

length

the four most important factors to consider in a hair analysis include all the following except

diameter

hair texture is defined as the hair's

porosity

the hair's ability to absorb moisture is it's

coarse

____ hair has the largest diameter

fine

the hair texture that has the most suseptible to damage from chemical services is

density

the number of individual hair strands on one square inch

color of the hair

the number of hairs on the head generally varies with the

blonde hair

highest density, thickest hair is found among

resistant

hair with lowest porosity is considered

overprocessed

hair with high porosity

50%

wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to ___ of its original length and return to the same length without breaking

hair stream

hair flowing in the same direction

inactive sebacceuos glands

dry hair and scalp are caused by

more abundant on men

all the following characteristics apply to the vellus hair except

terminal hair

hormonal changes during puberty cause some areas of vellus hair to be replaced with

telogen

the three phases of hair growth are anagen, catagen, and

anagen

the growth phase of the hair growth cycle is known as

catagen phase

the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papulla during the

90%

about ___ of the scalp hair is growing in the anagen phase at any one time.

catagen phase

the phase of the hair growth that lasts the shortest time is the

telogen

the resting phase of the hair growth cycle is known as

10%

about ___ of the hair is in the resting phase at any one time.

scalp massage increases hair growth

one common hair myth is

lacks melanin

gray hair is exactly the same as pigmented hair except that it

normal

a loss of 35 to 40 hairs a day is considered

alopecia

abnormal hair loss is called

analyzed

a clients hair must be ____ before any service.

40

by the age of 35, almost ____ percent of men and women show some degree of hair loss.

alopecia areata

a type of alopecia by the sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spos is called

minoxidal

a topical medication applied to the scalp that has been proven to stimulate hair growth is

canities

gray hair, technical term

canities

ringed hair is a variety of

monilethrix

technical term, beaded hair

trichoptilosis

technical term, split ends

hypertrichosis

abnormal hair growth

trichorrhexis nodosa

brittleness and nodular swelling along the hair shaft

pityriasis capitis simplex

dry dandruff, thin scales, and an itchy scalp

referred to physician

clients with tinea capitis should be

vegetable parasites

tinea or ringworm is caused by

tinea capitis

ringworm of the scalp

tinea favosa

scutula

scabies

itch mites that burrow under the skin

head lice

pediculosis capitis is the infestation of the hair and scalp

furuncle

a boil

a carbuncle

an inflammtion of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci

sanitation and disinfection

preventing spread of tinea, pityriasis, and staphylococci infections involves proper

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