Chapter 11: Basics of Electricity

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active electrode

electrode used on the area to be treated

alternating current

rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction

amp

unit that measures the amount of an electric current (quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor)

anaphoresis

process of forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole

anode

positive electrode

blue light

theraputic light that should only be used on bare oily skin; contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating and has some germicidal and chemical benefits

catalysts

any substances having the power to increace the velocity (speed) of a chemical reaction

cataphoresis

process of forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole

cathode

negative electrode

circuit breaker

switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload

complete circuit

the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source

conductor

any substance, material, or medium that easily transmits electricity

converter

apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current

direct current (DC)

constant, even-flowing, current that travels in one direction only

desincrustation

process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits and backheads in the hair follicles

electric current

flow of electricity along a conductor

electricity

form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical or thermal effects; a flow of electrons

electrode

applicator for directing the electric current from machine to client's skin

electromagnetic radiation

also called radiant energy because it carries, or radiates, energy through space on waves

fuse

special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit

galvanic current

constant and direct current (DC), having a positive and negative pole and producing chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body

inactive electrode

opposite pole from the active electrode

infrared rays

invisible rays that have longer wavelengths, penetrate deeper, and produce more heat than visible light

insulator (noncondutor)

substance that does not easily transmit electricity

iontophoresis

process of introducing water soluble products into the skin with the use of electric current, such as the use of the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine

kilowatt

1,000 watts

milliampere

one-thousandth of an ampere

modalities

currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments

ohm

unit that measures the resistance of an electric current

polarity

negative or positive pole of an electric current

rectifier

apparatus that converts alternating current to direct current

red light

theraputic light used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams; penetrates the deepest and produces the most heat

Tesla high-frequency current

thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration; also called violet ray

ultraviolet (UV) rays

invisible rays that have short wavelengths, are the least penetrating rays, produce chemical effects, and kill germs; also called cold rays or actinic rays

visible light

the primary source of light used in facial and scalp treatments

volt

unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor

wall plate

instrument that plugs into an ordinary wall outlet and produces various types of electric currents that are used for facial and scalp treatments

watt

measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second

wavelength

distance between successive peaks of electromagnetic waves

white light

referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all visible rays of the spectrum

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