Modern Biology: Ch. 34 Vocabulary

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vertebrate

an animal with a backbone

invertebrate

an animal without a backbone

specialization

the adaptation of a cell for a specific function

cell junctions

connections between the cells that holds the cells together as an entire unit

ingestion

a process in which an animal takes in organic material

zygote

the first cell of a new individual

differentiation

process in which cells become different from each other

neurons

cells of nervous tissue which conduct electrical signals throughout an animal's body

symmetry

consistent overall pattern of structure

radial symmetry

symmetry in which the animal has a top and bottom side, but no front, back, left or right; symmetry in which similar parts branch out in all directions from a central line

dorsal

top

ventral

bottom

anterior

head

posterior

tail

bilateral symmetry

symmetry in which an animal has two similar halves on either side of a central plane

cephalization

the concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of the animal; animal has a head which proceds the rest of the body

germ layers

fundamental tissues found in the embryo of all animals except sponges

chordate

animals that have a notochord, dorsal nerve chord, pharyngeal pouches, and a postanal tail in some stage of development

notochord

a firm, flexible rod of tissue located in the dorsal side of an animal

dorsal nerve chord

hollow tube lying just above (or dorsal to) the notochord

pharyngeal pouches

small outpockets of the anterior part of the digestive tract

postanal tail

consists of muscle tissue and lies behind the posterior opening of the digestive tract

Segmentation

refers to a body composed of similar and repeating units

exoskeleton

a rigid outer covering that protects the soft tissue of many animals (eg arthropods); limits the size and impedes the movement of the organism, and does not grow (has to be shed)

gas exchange

the exchange of carbon dioxide with oxygen

gills

organs specialized for gas exchange in water

circulatory system

system that moves blood or a similar fluid through the body to supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells

open circulatory system

circulatory system in which blood like fluid is pumped from vessels in the body into the body cavity

closed circulatory system

circulatory system in which blood circulates through the body in tubular vessels

gut

digestive tract

hermaphrodite

an organism that produces both male and female gametes

indirect development

animals that undergo an intermediate larva stage

larva

a premature free-living form of an organism

direct development

an organism that is born or hatched with the same appearance and way of life as it will when it is an adult; no larva stage

endoskeleton

an internal skeleton that can support a large, heavy body; grows as the animal grows

vertebrae

the repeating bony units of a backbone

integument

the outer covering of an animal

lungs

organs for gas exchange composed of moist, membranous surfaces

kidneys

organs that filter waste from blood while regulating water levels in the body

cleavage

divisions of the zygote immediately after fertilization

blastula

a hollow ball of cells

blastocoel

central cavity of the blastula

blastospore

the infolded region of the blastula

gastrulation

process that transforms a blastula into a gastrula

gastrula

multilayered embryo

archenteron

deep cavity formed as the cup shape embryo enlarges; serves as gut

ectoderm

outer germ layer of the gastrula

endoderm

inner germ layer

mesoderm

third layer formed between ectoderm and endoderm

coelom

a body cavity completely lined by mesoderm

protosomes

describing development of the mouth before development of the anus in arthropods, annelids, and mollusks

spiral cleavage

cleavage in which cells divide in a spiral arrangement

deuterosomes

describing development of anus before the mouth in echinoderms and chordates

radial cleavage

cleavage in which the cell divisions are parallel to or at right angles to the axis from one pole of the blastula to another

determinate cleavage

A type of embryonic development in protostomes that rigidly casts the developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early.

indeterminate cleavage

A type of embryonic development in deuterostomes, in which each cell produced by early cleavage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.

schizocoely

in protosomes; process in which cells divide rapidly in the blastocoel to form the mesoderm

enterocoely

in deuterosomes; process in which cells in the archenteron divide rapidly and roll outward into the blastocoel to form the mesoderm

acoelomates

organisms in which the body cavity is absent

pseudocoelomates

organisms containing pseudocoeloms

psuedocoelom

body cavity in which the mesoderm lines the interior of the coelom but does not surround the exterior of the endodermic gut

coelomates

animals with a true coelom

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