The view that judges should discern the general principles underlying laws or the Constitution and apply them to modern circumstances.
Ad Hoc Structure
Several subordinates, cabinet officers, and committees report directly to the president on different matters.
The tendency if the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them.
Programs designed to increase minority participation in some institution by taking positive steps to appoint more minority-group members.
A government program financed by general income taxes that provides benefits to poor citizens without requiring contribution from them. (19)
A government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted around 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public. (8)
Legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency. (15)
A public official's statement to a reporter that is given on condition that the official not be named (12)
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington.
A written statement by an attorney that summarizes a case and the laws and rulings that support it.
A document that states tax collections, spending levels, and the allocation of spending among purposes.
A congressional decision that states the maximum amount of money the government should spend.
The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public. (14)
A meeting of party members to select delegates backing one or another primary candidates. (9, 10, 13)
Name given to four federal laws passed in the late 1990s specifying the conditions under which nonprofit religious organizations could compete to administer certain social delivery and welfare programs. (19)
Opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully disobeying it and accepting the resultant punishment.
The rights of people to be treated without unreasonable or unconstitutional differences.
A belief that you are a member of an economic group whose interest are opposed to people in other such groups.
Law should not punish speech unless there was a clear and present danger of producing harmful actions.
An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor. (13)
The alleged tendency of candidates to win more votes in an election because of the presence at the top of the ticket of a better-known candidate, such as the president. (10)
A strategy to improve air and water quality, involving the setting of detailed pollution standards and rules. (21)
The ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law.
The government offices to which people are appointed to on the basis of merit, as ascertained by a written exam or by applying certain selection criteria. (15)
A signed opinion in which t=one or more members agree with the majority view but for different reasons.
Conditions of Aid
Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the House and Senate versions of the same bill.
Congressional Campaign Committee
A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would-be-members.
A federal court authorized by Article III of the Constitution that keeps judges in office during good behavior and prevents their salaries from being reduced. They are the Supreme Court and appellate and district courts created by Congress.
The belief that the United States should resist the expansion of aggressive nations, especially the former Soviet Union.
Critical or Realignment Period
Periods when a major, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition of supporting one or both parties.
De Facto Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of law, but as a result of patterns of residential sentiment.
The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states.
A device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor.
The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
The belief that the United States was harmed by its war in Vietnam and so should avoid supposedly similar events. (20)
Cases involving citizens of different states who can bring suit in federal courts. (16)
One part controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress.
A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business.
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate.
Due Process of Law
Denies the government the right, without due process, to deprive people of life, liberty, and property.
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
A provision of a 1975 law that entitles working families with children to receive money from the government if their total income is below a certain level. The program was expanded in the early 1990s.
The belief that the government plans, such as wage and price controls or the direction of investment, can improve the economy.
The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has. The District of Columbia has three electoral votes, even though it cannot elect a representative or senator.
A claim for government funds that cannot be changed without violating the rights of claimant. (18)
A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost.
Environmental Impact Statement
A report required by federal law that assesses the possible effect of a project on the environment if the project is subsidized in whole or part by federal funds.
Equal Time Rule
An FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates.
First Amendment ban on laws "respecting an establishment of religion."
Ex Post Facto Law
A law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed.
Media stories about events that, though public, are not regularly covered by reporters.
A rule that allows a plaintiff to recover costs from the defendant if the plaintiff wins.
An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill.
Organizations that, under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code, raise and spend money to advance political causes. (10)
The ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage. (13)
Freedom of Religion
People shall be free to exercise their religion, and government may not establish a religion.
Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to favor one party.
The tendency of Pentagon officials to ask weapons contractors to meet excessively high requirements.
An error in gathering evidence sufficiently minor that it may be used in trial.
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors voted prior to 1867.
Plan to have a popularly elected House based on population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state.
The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government.
Gross Domestic Product
The total of all goods and services produced in the economy during a given year.
Ideological Interest Groups
Political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions or principles.
In Forma Pauperis
A method whereby a poor person can have his or her case in federal court without charge.
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them.
A self-financing government program based on contributions that provide benefits to unemployed or retired persons. (19)
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
A close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group. (15)
A network of people in Washington D.C.--based interest groups, on congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media, who regularly discuss and advocate public policies. (15)
A formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president.
The belief the government must manage the economy by spending more money when in a recession and cutting spending when there is inflation.
Courts created by Congress for specialized purposes whose judges do not enjoy the protections of Article III of the Constitution. (16)
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after is has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power. (14, 15)
An executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature.
Words that imply a value judgement, used to persuade a reader without having made a serious argument.
A legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support for his or hers.
The legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or Senate.
Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population.
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not the accept federal grants.
Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections typically by less than 55% of the vote. (13)
An income qualification program that determines whether one is eligible for benefits under government programs reserved for lower-income groups.
The legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or the Senate.
Republican part faction of the 1890s to the 1910s composed of reformers who opposed patronage.
"Necessary and Proper" Clause
Section of the Constitution allowing congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties, and whicn has permitted congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it by the constitution.
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
A ballot listing all candidates for a given office under the name of that office; also called a "Massachusetts" ballot. (9)
A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as the enter the voting place.
A vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators.
A ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party; also called an "Indiana" ballot.
The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks.
A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns.