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Mr.Molin's Test

messiah

an expected deliverer

caliph

supreme leader of islam, chosen as the "successor" of Muhammad

prophet

messenger who recieved holy scriptures
imam prayer leader who performs the regular service of the mosque

kaaba

a cube-shaped shrine that housed a black stone believed to have been sent fromt he gods; Islam's holliest site; located in Mecca

jihad

translated as "struggle"; a personal struggle against evil

shariah

code of law based on the koran

Ramadan

a month in which Muslims must not eat, smoke, drink, or have sexual relations from sunrise to sunset or fasting

Hajj

the pilgrimage to Mecca; all able muslims must make one at least once in their lifetime; reminder of equality between all

Qur'an

or Koran Islam Bible

Sunni

Believe that any highly qualified person can be a Caliph

Mosque

A muslim house of worship
Hijirah journey Muh. made form Makkah to Madinah; the journey marked the beg. of Islam and the Muslim Calendar

Bedouin

group who orginally lived in Saudi Arabia and were nomadic herders; polytheistic

Astrolabe

a device adopted from Greeks, could measure latitude, time of day, and determine the position or movement of the stars and planets

Canon of Medicine

book which tried to summarize all medical knowledge of the time; written by Ibn Sina

calligraphy

the art of beautiful handwriting
revelation a situation or vison where God reveals something to man

alchemy

attempt to change lead into gold lead to developments in chemistry

Rubaiyat

a collection of poems; Omar Khayyam wrote it

Arabian Nights

or A thousand and One nights, a collection of stories

Abu Bakr

first caliph; Muh's father-in-law and close friend

Ali

Last caliph; Muh.'s son-in-law; he married Muh.'s daughter

Mu'awiyah

one of Ali's most powerful rivals; Syrian governor and Ummayed leader (3rd claiph)

The Shiite

believed you had to be a descendant of Muh. to be a caliph; followers of Ali

Ummayyads

dynasty which was founded by Mu'awiyah; moved capital to Damascus

Abbasids

Anti-Umayyad Arabs and non Arab muslims joined forces, built an army; caliph Abu'l-'Abbas, he est. dynasty and built baghdad

Harun al-Rashid

the caliph who ruled the Abbasid Empire and helped the empire reach it height

Ma'mun Abbasid

caliph who founded the House of Wisdom at Baghdad

House of wisdom

research center which specialized in the translation into arabic to diff. languages

Ibn-sina

doctor; who wrote Canon of Medicine

Omar khayyam

wrote Rubaijyat; was a persian mathematician and poet

Cordoba

capital of Umayyads in Spain; became known as the center for learning and intellectual life b/c of its libraries

Hashim

family Muh's family; was a powerful Quraysh tribe

Shahada

profession of faith-"there is only one god (Allah) and Muh. is his prophet"

Salat

Daily worship-5 times a day; guided by a precise set of rituals

zakat

alms-giving-muslims may yearly taxes to poor and needy

sawm

fast-from sunrise to sunset during the holy time of Ramadan

arabesque

complex designs typical of Islamic art, combining interwining plants and geometric patterns

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