The first elected president of the Republic of Texas was
Mexico refused to recognize Texas's independence.
What problem did the new Republic of Texas have with Mexico?
Their views on Native Texans.
Mirabeau B. Lamar and Sam Houston differed in their approaches to financial matters, the location of the capital, and
Lamar's contributions to public education
For what is Lamar's presidency best known?
Texas was a slave state.
Texas's first attempt at annexation was blocked because
Who was the president of the Republic of Texas when it became a state?
The border between Texas and Mexico followed the Rio Grande to Colorado.
Mirabeau B. Lamar interpreted the Treaties of Velasco to mean that...
The government promised land to every family who moved to Texas.
How did the Texas government attract settlers to the new nation?
Public records, papers, and documents.
The archives kept in Austin were...
The state of Texas operates with two chief executives, the governor and the...
Mexican officials claimed that Santa Anna signed the treaties only because his life was in danger, so they did not have to honor the agreements.
Why did Mexico refuse to accept the Treaties of Velasco?
Mexico had invaded the United States and had attacked American troops.
Why did the United States declare war on Mexico in 1846?
The idea that expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific Ocean was certain was known as...
President Polk sent James Slidell to Mexico to try to ease the tensions between the nations.
After the United States' annexation of Texas and Mexico's threat of war, what happened next?
Extra horses taken on the trail drive
A cowboy who rides at the rear of the herd to keep it moving
Disease carried by ticks and spread by cattle
The Spanish Missions
What were the earliest ranches in Texas?
cattle brought to America by Spanish explorers
Texas Longhorn cattle are descendants of...
the "Brown Menu"
What was the nickname given to the food on a cattle drive
The practice of branding livestock was brought to America by...
The cattle drives
What helped elevate Texas out of post-Civil War despair and poverty?
Mexican or African American
Nearly 1 in 3 cowhands on a drive were either...
1. The use of barbed wire 2. New rail lines to Texas 3. Texas Fever quarantines in KS and MO
What led to the decline of the cattle drive era?
A person who steals cattle
Method of transporting cattle from ranches in Texas to market
A ranch hand who cares for saddle horses
the Chisholm Trail
A trail that extended north from San Antonio to Dodge City, Kansas
Carried cooking equipment and food for the cowhands
The process of herding together scattered cattle
Town founded by Joseph McCoy that was the first of the Kansas railway destinations
a time of great economic growth
A fossil fuel formed deep inside the earth, often found with oil
Site of the discovery of a large supply of oil in 1901
A chemical made from petroleum or natural gas that is used to make plastics, synthetic rubber, and other household items
A mechanical and mining engineer who struck oil at Spindletop
A supply of a natural resource that is known to exist but has not yet been used
Founder of the Gladys City Oil, Gas, and Manufacturing Company
Person who drills for oil in an area not known to have oil
A scientist who studies the origin, history, and structure of the earth
A framework or tower over an oil well used to support drilling equipment
Oil produced over and above the limits set by the government
A town that experiences a major increase in population due to sudden economic growth
Where raw petroleum is purified and made into other products
A poisonous by-product of chemical production
General who led U.S. Army troops in the War with Mexico and later became president...
Compromise of 1850
The legislation that admitted California as a state, admitted New Mexico and Utah as territories, and enacted the Fugitive Slave Law was the...
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
This agreement ended the War with Mexico on February 2, 1848.
The transfer of land from one country to another is known as a...
To create a buffer between Native Texans and Texas settlers.
Why did the U.S. Army build a line of forts in West Texas in the mid-1800's?
In 1860, most of the 43,000 Texas residents who had been born outside the United States were from...
Stop the western spread of slavery.
The Republican Party was formed in 1854 to...
A Republican won the election.
Before the presidential election of 1860, Southerners threatened to secede if...
Confederate efforts to keep Texas ports open.
Most of the fighting in Texas during the Civil War centered on...
One Texas unit helped protect Washington, D. C. from invasion.
Which of these was not a result of the Civil War in Texas?
Union supporters were located mainly in which area?
To keep Texas from seceding
What was Sam Houston's goal in 1860?
Horses, weapons, and food
What did Texas provide for the Civil War effort?
Union victories closed land routes to the Confederacy.
Texas's economy was badly damaged when...
It was the site of the last Civil War battle.
What is the significance of Palmito Ranch?
To keep them from running away or being taken
Why were slaves from Louisiana and other southern states sent to Texas during the Civil War?
Most Southerners supported slavery, but many Northerners were abolitionists.
What was one of the "wedges of separation" that divided the North and the South in the years leading up to the Civil War?
The felt that slavery was necessary to support the economy.
Texans generally supported the institution of slavery because...
He was a wealthy, free African American.
Why is William Goyens a significant figure in Texas history?
More slaves were needed to tend the cotton.
Because there were so many cotton fields in Texas,
Stop freed slaves from exercising their rights.
The Ku Klux Klan was organized in order to...
Most Southern states' refusal to approve the 14th Amendment.
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 was passed in response to...
Edmund Davis was defeated in the race for governor.
What event marked the end of Reconstruction in Texas?
To register only people loyal to the Union as voters.
What was one duty of the troops assigned to Texas during military rule?
The creation of schools for African American children.
One major contribution of the Freedmen's Bureau was...
Divide the state into several parts.
During the Constitutional Convention of 1868-1869, some Texans wanted to...
Quaker Peace Policy
The policy that called for fair treatment and respect for the Native American way of life was called the...
Buffalo hunters killed buffalo primarily for their _________.
Comanche and Kiowa
Which Native American groups posed the greatest threat to Texas settlers in the 1860's?
People who accepted cattle, horses, and property that Native Americans took during raids were called _______.
Remove them from the frontier
After President Grant's peace policies failed, what did the U.S. government decide to do regarding the Native Americans?
African American troops who protected many of the frontier forts were called ________________.
The Texas Rangers
Which group was reestablished in 1874 to defend the frontier in Texas?
Red River War
The Second Battle of Adobe Walls and the battles at Palo Duro Canyon are collectively known as the...
Who did Texas governor Edmund Davis release on parole before he left office?
Besides Native American raiders, who were the Texas Rangers assigned to stop?
They thought it would force Native Americans to move to the reservations.
Why did some government leaders encourage the killing of buffalo?
Texas did not have an efficient transportation system.
Why was commercial farming not practiced in Texas immediately after the Civil War?
Producing almost all the goods needed by the farm family, with little extra for sale, is known as ______________.
They could not afford to buy their own land.
Why was tenant farming the only way for many farmers to survive?
In the late 1800s, from whom could farmers buy cheap land?
What became a symbol of civilization on the barren plains of West Texas?
Trading goods for another product or service is called _________.
cycle of poverty
Being unable to pay off one's debts year after year is known as a ________.
The state government paid for the construction of railroads with ...
______________ ruled the farming industry in Texas in the late 1800s.
rented it to individual families
What did plantation owners do with land that they were not using?
If you were a farmer who did not have enough money to rent land, what kind of farmer would you have to be?
Manufacturing, the size of cities, and the number of gristmills and flour mills
What increased as a result of farmers' demands for store-bought products?
What did lumber companies establish as they became larger?
A type of farming in which crops are produced for sale is ...
The processes used to separate chemicals from oil were bad for the environment because they created cancer-causing fumes and ________.
Which Texas city benefited from early oil discoveries and remains a center for oil companies today?
Where was the first oil boom in Texas?
The Texas Railroad Commission
Which agency has the power to regulate the oil industry?
It was burned at the site.
Originally, what was done with natural gas that was discovered in the oil fields?
Overproduction caused prices to drop.
Why did the government step in to regulate the oil industry?
In addition to being a center for meatpacking, Fort Worth became a center for ______________.
East Texas and the Gulf Coast
Where was most of the oil discovered in Texas between 1900 and 1940?
nerve gas & tanks
What modern weapons were used for the first time during World War I?
Which side did the United States join when it entered WWI in 1917?
Had a warm climate and wide open spaces
Texas was an ideal training site for the U.S. Army Air Corps because it...
In the Zimmerman Telegram, _________________ offered to join forces with Mexico to invade the United States and take back former Mexican Territories.
During WWI, students were instructed in ____________ for 10 minutes a day.
The plowing under of millions of acres of prairie grasses.
A direct cause of the Dust Bowl was...
Women were often fired to open up jobs for Anglo men.
Which of these is a reason that the Depression was particularly hard on women?
Texas celebrated the centennial of its independence from Mexico in _______.
became President of the U.S.
Dwight D. Eisenhower was the Texas-born commander of the Allied forces who later...
The United States entered WWII when _____________ attacked Pearl Harbor.
Became president after Lincoln's assassination
Cynthia Ann Parker
Captured as a child by the Comanches and adopted their culture
Made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria
African American soldier on the Texas frontier
Mexican Revolution of 1910
Began when Mexican citizens grew tired of poor living conditions
A name given to states that were devastated by drought between 1935 and 1937
November 11, 1918
The date that marked the end of WWI
A major factor in the U.S. decision to join WWI
Products created for personal use, such as clothing, radios, and refrigerators
Refusal of a government head to sign a bill
A general in the Mexican Revolution who killed several U.S. citizens in northern Mexico
October 29, 1929
The date of the stock market crash that began the Great Depression
WWII soldier from Texas who received every U.S. medal awarded for valor
President who introduced the New Deal
An organized group or unit of soldiers
Freed all slaves in Confederate states
Constitution of 1876
Stripped the governor and legislature of many powers.
Name given to Davis's program by Redeemers
Change made to a law, bill, or document
Influential Comanche leader
The monitored release of a prisoner before a full sentence is served
Second Battle of Adobe Walls
Battle between buffalo hunters and Kiowas and Comanches in which the Native Americans were led by Quanah Parker
An area designated for a special purpose
A person who kills buffalo for their valuable hides
First Battle of Adobe Walls
Conflict between Kit Carson's forces and the Comanches and Kiowas
Rule by an army instead of by the usual authorities
Took command of the Frontier Regiment in 1864
created by the legislature to protect the frontier from attacks by Native Americans
Group opposed to the Davis administration
Placed southern states under military rule and divided them into districts
The idea that expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific Ocean was certain
Fugitive Slave Law
Legislation that required U.S. citizens to help police officers in capturing escaped slaves
General who led U.S. Army troops in the War with Mexico and later became president
they could survive under harsh conditions
Cattle ranchers liked the Texas Longhorn because...