Unit 7 Cities and Urban Land Use

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Urban Land Use

Lands in urban areas with sufficient reserve areas to accommodate foreseeable growth.

Cities Land Use

unrestricted growth around the city fingers is often matched by a loss of population in the inner city areas, leaving existing housing and services underused. In the process, demand for land and building materials increases pressure on the Earth's resources.

Agglomeration

A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.

Barriadas

a neighborhood, usually a slum or lower class (many of the Latin American cities have these outside the central city)

Bid-rent theory

geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.

Blockbusting

Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area

Central Business District

The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.

Census Tract

An area delineated by the us bureau of the census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods

Centrality

The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract produce and consumers to its facilities; a city's "reach" into the surrounding region

Centralization

the movement of people, capital, services, and govt. into the central city (opposite of suburban sprawl, happened to cities before WWII and is happening now).

Central Place Theory

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.

Walter Christaller

German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated central-place theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range.

City

people living in a large densely populated municipality

Cityscapes

An urban landscape

Colonial City

City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.

Commercialization

The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.

Commuter Zone

the outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work.

Concentric Zone Model

A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.

Counterurbanization

occurs when cities experience a net loss of population to smaller towns and rural areas; results in the deconcentration of population within an urban system

Decentralization

the social process in which population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts

Deindustrialization

process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment

Early Cities

Cities of the ancient world (We learned about how agriculture and language began in this era.
ex cities around 3500 to 1200

Economic Base

A community's collection of basic industries.

Basic Economic Base

activities represent the function performed for the larger economy and urban system

Nonbasic Economic Base

satisfy the needs of the urban residents themselves

Edge City

City that is located on the outskirts of larger cities and serves many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.

Emerging Cities

City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate

Employment Structure

Number of people employed with both basic and nonbasic jobs

Entrepot

a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties

Ethnic Neighborhood

neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or composed of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs

Favela

a slum community in a Brazilian city

Female-headed Household

a household dominated by a woman

Festival Landscape

space within an urban environment that can accommodate a large number of people

Gateway City

Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.

Gender

the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

Gentrification

the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)

Ghetto

a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions

Globalization

The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.

Great Cities

a city with a population of more then 1 million

High-tech Corridors

an area along a limited-access highway that houses offices and other services associated with high-tech industries

Hinterland

Surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and it is the dominant urban influence as well.

Hydraulic Civilization

a civilization based on large-scale irrigation systems as the prime mover behind urbanization and a class of technical specialists as the first urban dwellers. Cairo

Indigenous City

A city that is harmonized with its environment even as it shaped that environment and gave focus and significance to elements of the environment that were held to be important to its occupants.

In-filling

The use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development, especially as part of a neighborhood preservation or limited growth program.

Informal Sector

the portion of an economy largely outside government control in which employees work without contracts or benefits

Infrastructure

the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area

Inner City

urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.

Invasion

any entry into an area not previously occupied

Succession

the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time

Lateral Commuting

commuting that occurs between suburban areas rather than towards the central city.

Medieval Cities

Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain such unique features as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.

Megacities

Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty.

Megalopolis

an extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.

Conurbation

an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities

Metropolitan Area

a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it

Multiple Nuclei Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

Multiplier Effect

An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.

Neighborhood

people living near one another

Office Park

A cluster of office buildings, usually located along an interstate, often forming the nucleus of an edge city

Peak Land Value Intersection

The most accessible and costly parcel of land in the central business
district and, therefore, in the entire urbanized area.

Planned Communities

cities in which all aspects of development are determined before construction begins. (May be referred to as "new towns" "garden cities" or "greenbelt towns."

Postindustrial City

a city in which global finances and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy

Postmodern Urban Landscape

Attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments

Primate City

a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy

Racial Steering

real estate agents advising customers to purchase homes in neighborhoods depending on their race

Rank-size Rule

In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.

Redlining

Illegal practice of refusing to make mortgage loans or issue insurance policies in specific areas for reasons other than economic qualifications of applicants

Restrictive Covenants

provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional

Sector Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).

Segregation

The separation of or isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group from the rest of society.

Settlement Form

the spatial arrangements of buildings, roads, towns and other features that people construct while inhabiting an area.

Nucleated Settlement Form

a settlement clustered around a central point, such as a village green or church.

Dispersed Settlement Form

in comparison with nucleated settlement, a settlement pattern characterized by scattered, isolated dwellings.

Elongated Settlement Form

a settlement that is clustered linearly along a street, river, etc.

Shopping Mall

mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers

Site

physical position in relation to the surroundings

Situation

The location of a place relative to other places.

Slum

a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

Social Structure

the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships

Specialization

the special line of work you have adopted as your career

Squatter Settlement

An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.

Grid Street Pattern

an arrangement of streets that intersect at right angles

Dendritic Street Pattern

street pattern characterized by fewer streets organized into a hierarchy based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry--they form the "loop" or "lollipop" typical of urban sprawl neighborhoods.

Access Street Pattern

provides access to a subdivision, housing project or highway

Control Street Pattern

is one that controls access like the on ramps to I-10

Suburb

A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.

Suburbanization

Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.

Symbolic landscape

smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category. iconic landscapes, i.e. the state capitol symbolizes WI. every landscape can symbolize something, but these are focal points for people's attention

Tenement

a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety

Threshold

The minimum number of people needed to support the service

Range

the maximum distance people are willing to travel for a good or service

Town

the people living in a municipality smaller than a city

Underclass

A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.

Underemployment

the condition when people work at jobs for which they are overqualified or that do not utilize their skills

Urban Growth Rate

Rate of growth of an urban population. Compare degree of urbanization.

Urban Function

Services that are provided in a certain metropolitan area

Urban Hearth Area

The entire built-up, nonrural area and its population, including the most recently constructed suburban appendages. Provides a better picture of the dimensions and populations of such an area than the delimited municipality (central city) that forms its heart.

Urban Heat Island

The concept that on average, both maximum and minimum temperatures are higher in urban areas than in nearby rural settings.

Urban Hierarchy

a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions

Urban Hydrology

Changes in water drainage patterns that occur in urban areas. Roads and artificial surfaces cut down infiltration and storage while storm sewers speed up the flow of water into rivers. It is suggested that urbanization increases the risk of flooding as rivers respond much more violently to a storm event.

Urban Morphology

The study of the physical form and structure of urban places.

Urbanization

the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

Urbanized Population

the percentage of a country's population living in cities

World City

Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.

Zone in Transition

an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD.

Zoning

dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc

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