From the Greek oikoumene, meaning "the whole inhabited world." A formal synod of bishops from the whole inhabited world convened to define doctrine, regulate Christian life, or apply discipline in the Church. First was held in Nicaea in AD 325
another name for the book of revelation, the final Book of the Bible which is attributed to St. John and written during his exile on the island of Patmos. Showed courage and strengthened persecuted Christians by fortelling the final victory of Christ and his Church over sin and evil.
Primacy of Peter
The position of being first in rank or authority. The Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles bear witness to St. Peter's primacy among the Apostles.
Greek for "witness". A witness to the truth of the Faith in which a Christian endures suffering and even death for Christ.
any individual who has died and been canonized by the Catholic Church. The members of the Church on earth, the People of God, are also called saints.
A Jewish festival, fifty days after Passover, celebrating the giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai. On the 50th day after the Resurrection, the Holy Spirit was manifested, given, and communicated to the Apostles, fulfilling the mission of Christ. This is the "birthday" of the Church.
The Bible. The canonical writings validated by the Church as inerrant and inspired by the Holy Spirit. Together with Sacred Tradition, it makes up a single deposit of the Word of God, the Deposit of Faith, a single gift of God to the Church.
From the Latin word meaning "to hand down". The Church's teachings that have been passed down through the ages through the successors of the Apostles. Together with Sacred Scripture, it makes up the Deposit of Faith.
Keys to the Kingdom
In the Old Testament, the sign of the office of prime minister, who is appointed by the king to have primacy over all his other servants; in the New Testament, Jesus gives these to St. Peter, indicating that he would be both the leader in this Church and Christ's own representative on earth. In other words, the first Pope.
The sacrament by which bread and wine are consecrated by a priest and become the true Body and Blood of Christ, which the faithful consume in Holy Communion: , which means "thanksgiving", refers to the Catholic Mass itself
Bishop of Rome
Before Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70AD, the bishops of Jerusalem were considered the most important of all the bishops; but after Jerusalem's destruction, the bishop of Rome became more central in the Church because Peter was martyred in Rome
A degree of the Sacrament of Holy Orders after bishop and priest for men who are ordaonmed to ministry and service, assisting bishops by preaching and doing charitable works.
A man ordained who assists the bishop in the service to the People of God, particularly through celebrating the Eucharist and conferring the Sacraments
Means, "supervisor or overseer"; a High ranking Christian clergyman, in charge of a diocese.
The study of biblical types; A biblical type is anything in the Old Testament that is mirrored and re-established in the New Testament.
means to speak in defense of someone or something; a person who argues in defense or justification of another person or cause. Defender of the faith
Defenders of Faith
Well-educated people who knew Greek philosophy and could debate with non-Christians on an equal basis
Means, Faction, a position on an article of faith that conflicts with officially defined teachings of the Church
Means, "having the correct opinion;" The opposite of heresy, adhering to traditional and essential beliefs or practices.
The joining of both Jesus divine and human natures
(a heresy) means, "knowledge;" believed that all material things including the body were evil. -Gnostics claimed that if Jesus came from God, He could not have taken on human form because the body was evil by nature. Therefore, the human figure of Jesus was just an apparition. Reasoning is like the MATRIX philosophy.
-To the Gnostics, Jesus was divine but not human.
-Gnostics believed that human beings (non-Gnostics) were completely ignorant of God because God was removed from all material things.
-The exception was that the Gnostics claimed to possess a special secret knowledge of God and their own spiritual destiny.
-Salvation was not the gift of Jesus to all people; it was a special privilege just for Gnostics.
a. Around 315 AD, an Alexandrian priest named Arius taught the heresy known as Arianism; his followers were called Arians.
b. Arians denied Jesus' divinity. They believed that God was unknowable, unchangeable, and unreachable, could never take the form of a human being.
c. To the Arians, Jesus was made or created by God and subordinate to God.
d. Calling Jesus divine was merely a courtesy because they believed Him to be somewhere between God and human.
- Composed after the Apostle's creed and incorporated the understanding of both Jesus as both God and Human.
- The Council of Nicea was a major defining moment for Christianity.
- This creed has been an important definition of membership in the Christian community for over 1600 years.
- It expresses the belief that Jesus was not made by God, but is one with God, being both human and divine.
i. Different heresies such as Gnosticism challenged Christian beliefs and caused the Church to clarify and unify its beliefs through a statement of faith known as the Apostle's Creed.
ii. By the year 200, this creed became part of Christian worship; candidates seeking baptism had to understand it and accept it publicly before entering the Church community.
Greek word meaning rock. Peter was called this.
Greek word meaning church. Jesus' church is the community that he will gather and like a building it will have a solid foundation a.ka. Peter
Greek word for hell.
To give evidence or to speak in favor of. One that argues for a cause; A defender. Jesus is the defender of the world because he intercedes for us regarding heaven and hell.
an authoritative command or instruction
inmunity from error. Holy Spirit gave this to the Church
the territory and the churches under a bishop's authority
greek word for teaching
early Eucharistic celebrations recalled key events, teachings, and prayers of Jesus such as his words at the Last Supper, the Lord's Prayer, and the Creed.
good news; refers to the teachings of Christ and the apostles, or something accepted as unquestionably true. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
look at together
Matthew, Mark, and Luke
a miracle story usually involving a powerful sign that shows Jesus' mastery over the elements of nature.
vivid short story used to convey a greater religious truth
these were read/sung in early liturgies and later incorporated into the gospels.
6 BC- 30 AD
This stage covers Jesus' life until he begins his public ministry
The removing of an evil spirit from a human body.
An extreme exaggeration
a scholarly approach to the study of scripture that attempts to see how each of the gospel writers edited, or redacted, materials for that gospel's audience
the state of having rejected your religious beliefs
4 Marks of the Church
The 4 attributes of the Church mentioned in the Nicene Creed "I believe in One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church".
The general name given to any of the Christian denominations that broke from the Catholic Church during the sixteenth-century Reformation and to the splinter churches from these communities; today these include the Lutherans, Anglicans (Episcopalians), Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and many others. More generally, the term refers to any Western Christian community not in union with the Catholic Church.
is a remission before God of temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven.
"to peruse or;" A state in which the souls of those who have died in grace must expiate their sins.
An Augustinian priest and monk who held an important position in his order. Luther was also a scholar who studied the teachings of the Early Church Fathers and the Bible
A policy: a formal agreement or idea that develops a specific point of view.
is a complete integration of Church and State. Anyone who practiced any beliefs that opposed Calvin's would be punished by death.
was a central belief in Calvin's form of Protestantism.
given the title "defender of the faith" by Pope Leo X because he condemned Lutheranism.
was a lawyer and writer. Was the chandler of England, which was the highest government official under the king.
"an ideal world"
Today, descendants of the Anglican Church.
Council of Trent
was responsible for what is now called the Catholic Reformation. (1545-1563 AD).
Christ's work of redemption accomplished principally by his Passion, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension, whereby, "dying he destroyed our death, rising he restored our life." Is celebrated and made present in the liturgy of the Church, and its saving effects are communicated through the Sacraments, especially the Eucharist, which renews the Paschal Sacrifice of Christ as the sacrifice offered by the Church.
The order of the Catholic priesthood, one of the three Holy Orders
The office of bishop in the Catholic Church; from the Greek "episkopos" ("overseer"), from which also is derived the word "bishop."
The work of the laity toward building up the Church through initiatives and efforts that evangelize, educate, or serve the needs of others.
The first Sacrament received by a Christian, involving immersion or the pouring of water on the recipient's head while pronouncing the invocation of the Trinity; it forgives sins, including Original Sin, begins a new life in Christ, and incorporates the new Christian into the life of the Church, the Body of Christ; it is one of the Seven Sacraments of the Church and the first of the three Sacraments of Initiation.
A sinner who repents of his or her sin and seeks forgiveness.
The practice of self-denial as a way to discipline our bodies and appetites so as to strengthen the soul and focus more on interior life.
Anoniting of the Sick
A Sacrament administered by a priest to a baptized person who begins to be in danger of death because of illness or old age, celebrated with prayer and anointing with oil in the name of Christ; it provides the recipient with grace for healing, strength, forgiveness of sins, and, if near death, preparation for death and the afterlife; one of the Seven Sacraments of the Church.
The Easter Triduum reaches it pinnacle in, which commemorates the holy night when Christ rose form the dead. Those who desire to be in full communion with the Church receive the Sacraments of Initiation during the Vigil. 4 parts 1. the service of light, with the blessing of the fire and procession with the Paschal candle and Easter proclamation; 2. the Liturgy of the Word; 3. the Rite of Baptism, with the blessing of the water and renewal of the baptismal promises; and 4. the Liturgy of the Eucharist.
4 types of prayer
petition, adoration, contrition, thanksgiving
Sacraments of Initiation
The three Sacraments that fully incorporate a Christian into the Catholic community: Baptism, Eucharist, and Confirmation.
Charity Piety Justice
It is a requirement of Charity since we have to will the good of others. It is an obligation of piety toward members of the same natural or supernatural family. And it is also an obligation of justice since some souls may be detained in Purgatory partly through our fault because of our sins of commission or omission.
3 states of the Church
Church Militant, which is the pilgrim Church on earth, is composed of Christ's Faithful here on earth, Church Suffering includes those in Purgatory who have died in communion with God but who have not yet been fully purified; and Church Triumphant, which is the heavenly Church in glory.
The judgement on the living and the dead at the second coming of Christ, at which time those who died before the second coming and have gone through the Particular Judgement will have their bodies reunited with their souls.
sometimes called the Apocalypse. We are presented with a confusing and at times of terrifying array of visions and symbols: rivers of blood; plagues of locusts; angelic wars; and, of course, strange, demonic beasts.
Greek term for the second coming of Christ, who will come for the Final Judgement at the end of time.
Christ's on behalf of his members but also of that of the saints, especially the Blessed Virgin Mary. Devotion to the saints corresponds in its very essence to the profound reality of the Church as a mystery of communion.
The eternal state of supreme and definitive happiness with God; communion of life and love with the Trinity and all the blessed.
The eternal state of definitive self-exclusion from communion with God.
God the Father
the Creator of the universe and made everything out of nothing.
Usually refers to death, judgement, Heaven, and Hell; a longer list would include Purgatory and the resurrection of the body.