A group of departments, agencies, and other institutions that for the most part are located in the executive branch of government and that develop and implement public policy.
The process by which policy is executed.
Administrative determinations about how laws will be interpreted and implemented.
A system of government in which a presidential administration awards jobs to party loyalists.
Civil Service System
A system of government in which decisions about hiring, promotion, and firing are based on individuals' work experience, skills, and expertise.
A major administrative unit that is composed of many agencies serving many policy functions, and that is headed by a secretary, who serves in the president's Cabinet.
Independent Agencies and Commissions
Bureaucratic organizations that operate outside of Cabinet-level departments and are less subject to congressional or presidential influence.
A corporation created and funded by the government to provide some public service that would be insufficiently provided by the private sector.
The problem that occurs when one person (the principal) contracts with another person (the agent) to provide a service and yet cannot directly observe what the agent is actually doing; the agent, meanwhile, is motivated to take advantage of the principal.
A situation in which bureaucrats do not work as hard as Congress of the president would like.
A situation in which bureaucrats create policy that does not match the policy preferences of congress of the president.
The condition under which an agency primarily serves the interests of a nongovernmental group rather than those of elected officials.
The inefficiency and waste that result from excessive regulation and overly formal procedures.
A phenomenon that occurs when Congress and the president select bureaucracy leaders who share their political views.
The means by which the president fills a vacant position in the bureaucracy when Congress is not in session, thus avoiding the need for prior congressional approval.
Congressional and presidential efforts to monitor and supervise the actions of bureaucratic agencies.
A formal process in which committees in Congress call upon bureaucrats and other experts to help them understand and oversee a particular agency.
A bureaucrat who witnesses and publicly exposes wrongdoing by either contacting his or her political superiors or tipping off the press.
The method of increasing the president's power by moving key administrative functions from the departments to the Executive Office of the President.
The process of decreasing the number of agency rules that apply to a particular industry or group of industries so as to introduce market forces to their operations.
The transfer of governmental functions form the federal government to private companies.