a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity that may be associated with cancer
a diagnostic imaging modality that utilizes the administration of radionuclides into the human body for an analysis of the function of organs, or for the treatment of various abnormalities
a procedure that uses a needle to drain fluid from the abdominal cavity for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons
a diagnostic imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation for imaging bones, organs, and some soft tissue structures
a procedure that uses a needle to drain fluid from the pleural cavity for either diagnostic or therapeutic reasons
a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity often associated with cirrhosis
American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
what entity publishes the practice guidelines for sonograms
what lab value will be decreased if the patient has bleeding secondary to trauma or hemorrhage?
gallbladder, liver (except for the bare area), ovaries, spleen (except for the splenic hilum), stomach
list the intraperitoneal organs
forms a closed sac, except for two openings in the female pelvis (fallopian tubes)
abdominal lymph nodes, adrenal glands, aorta, ascending and descending colon, duodenum, IVC, kidneys, pancreas, prostate gland, ureters, urinary bladder, uterus
what organs are considered retroperitoneal?
acute cholecystitis, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, ectopic pregnancy, malignancy, portal hypertension, ruptured AAA
list some pathologies associated with ascites
complex fluid with loculations and produce matting of the bowel
what does exudate ascites look like?
what cavity space extends alongside the ascending and descending colon on both sides of the abdomen?
cancer that originates in the transitional epithelium of an organ or structure
define transitional cell carcinoma
an abscess that develops from a parasite that grows in the colon and invades the liver via the portal vein
autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
an inherited disease that results in the development of renal, liver, and pancreatic cysts late in life
a growth disorder syndrome synonymous with enlargement of several organs including the skull, tongue, and liver
a syndrome described as the occlusion of the hepatic veins, with possible co-existing occlusion of the IVC
condition defined as hepatocyte death, fibrosis and necrosis of the liver, and the subsequent development of regenerating nodules
echinococcal cyst or hydatid liver cyst
a liver cyst that develops from a tapeworm that lives in dog feces; originates from echinococcus granulosis
the yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae; found in liver disease and/or biliary obstuction
the area of the liver where the common bile duct exits the liver and portal vein and hepatic artery enter the liver; also referred to as the porta hepatis
the area of the liver where the portal vein and hepatic artery enter and the hepatic ducts exit; also referred to as the liver hilum
an assembly of a small branch of the portal vein, bile duct, and hepatic artery that surround each liver lobule
pyogenic hepatic abscess
the liver abscess that can result from the spread of infection from inflammatory conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and endocarditis
starry sky sign
the sonographic sign associated with the appearance of periportal cuffing in which there is an increased echogenicity of the walls of the portal triads
transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
the therapy for portal hypertension that involves the placement of a stent between the portal veins and hepatic veins to reduce portal systemic pressure
carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, aminoacid metabolism, removal of waste products, vitamin and mineral storage, drug inactivation, synthesis and secretion of bile
name the 7 vital functions of the liver
alkaline phosphate, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum bilirubin, prothrombin
name six lab values associated with liver disfunction
cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, gallstones, hepatitis, metastatic liver disease, pancreatic carcinoma
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated alkaline phosphate?
hepatitis, hepatocellular disease, obstructive jaundice
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated alanine aminotransferase?
cirrhosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, metastatic liver disease
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated aspartate aminotransferase?
hepatitis, cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase?
acute hepatocellular disease
what abnormality is associated with an increased unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin?
biliary tract obstruction
what abnormality is associated with an increased conjugated (direct) bilirubin?
cirrhosis and other chronic liver cell disease
what abnormalities are associated with a total increase in bilirubin?
main lobar fissure (also the middle hepatic vein)
what separates the right and left lobes of the liver
an increase in the amount of collagen within the walls
why are the walls of the portal veins echogenic?
main portal vein, common bile duct, hepatic artery
what structures are located within the porta hepatitis?
papillary process of the caudate lobe
an inferior extension of the caudate lobe that can resemble a mass
obesity, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, glycogen storage disease, and the use of some drugs
what are some causes of a fatty liver?
diffusely echogenic with increased attenuation of the sound beam
how does diffuse fatty liver appear sonographically?
hyperechoic area adjacent to the gallbladder, near the porta hepatis, or the entire medial segment of the left lobe may appear echogenic
how does fatty focal infiltration appear sonographically?
hypoechoic area adjacent to the gallbladder, near the porta hepatis, or the entire medial segment of the left lobe may be spared. Can appear much like pericholecystic fluid when seen adjacent to the gallbladder
how does focal sparing appear sonographically?
contact with contaminated body fluids, mother to infant transmission, or inadvertent blood contact
how is hepatitis B spread?
chills, dark urine, elevated LFTs, fatigue, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, nausea, vomiting
what are the symptoms of hepatitis?
normal liver, enlarged hypoechoic liver, periportal cuffing, gallbladder wall thickening
what are the sonographic findings of hepatitis?
the type of jaundice that is on a cellular level, no associated with biliary obstruction
ascites, diarrhea, elevated LFTs, fatigue, hepatomegaly, jaundice, splenomegaly, weight loss
what are the symptoms of cirrhosis?
hepatomegaly (initial), shrunken right lobe of liver, enlarged caudate and left lobe, nodular surface irregularity, coarse echotexture, splenomegaly, ascites, monophasic flow within the hepatic veins, hepatofugal flow within the portal veins
what are the sonographic findings of cirrhosis?
abnormal LFTs, ascites, diarrhea, fatigue, hepatomegaly, jaundice, weight loss
what are the symptoms of portal hypertension?
hepatomegaly (initial), shrunken right lobe of liver, enlarged caudate and left lobe, nodular surface irregularity, coarse echotexture, splenomegaly, ascites, monophasic flow within the hepatic veins, hepatofugal flow within the portal veins, enlargement of the portal vein, enlargement of SMV, enlargement and reversed flow within the coronary vein, abdominal varicosities and the splenic hilum, renal hilum, and gastroesophageal junction, patent paraumbilical vein, collateral development at the splenic and renal hilum
what are the sonographic findings of portal hypertension?
hepatocellular carcinoma, portal hypertension, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, surgery
what conditions are associated with portal vein thrombosis?
abdominal pain, elevated LFTs, hypovolemia, leukocytosis, low grade fever, nausea, vomiting
what are the symptoms of portal vein thrombosis?
echogenic thrombus within the portal vein, cavernous transformation of the portal veins
what are the sonographic findings of portal vein thrombosis?
cavernous transformation of the portal vein
what is the term for the tiny mesh of blood vessels in the area of the portal vein that occurs with portal vein thrombosis
ascites, elevated LFTs, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, upper abdominal pain
what are the clinical findings of Budd Chiari syndrome?
nonvisualization or reduced visualization of the hepatic veins, thrombus within the hepatic veins, enlarged caudate lobe, lack of flow within the hepatic veins, narrowing of the IVC
what are the sonographic findings of Budd Chiari syndrome?
asymptomatic, normal LFTs, polycystic kidney disease
what are the clinical findings of hepatic cysts?
anechoic mass or masses with smooth walls and posterior enhancement, may have irregular shapes, clusters of cysts may be noted
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic cysts?
leukocytosis, low grade fever, nausea, obstructive jaundice, RUQ tenderness
what are the clinical findings of hydatid liver cysts?
complex anechoic mass or masses containing some debris
what are the sonographic findings of hydatid liver cysts?
fever, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, possible abnormal LFTs, RUQ pain
what are the clinical findings of a pyogenic hepatic abscess?
complex cyst with thick walls, mass with debris, septations, or air
what are the sonographic findings of a pyogenic abscess?
hepatomegaly, RUQ pain, general malaise, diarrhea, fever, leukocytosis, elevated LFTs, mild anemia
what are the clinical findings of an amebic hepatic abscess?
round, hypoechoic or anechoic mass or masses that contain debris with acoustic enhancement
what are the sonographic findings of an amebic hepatic abscess?
cancer patients, recent organ transplant patients, HIV patients, RUQ pain, fever, hepatomegaly
what are the clincal findings of hepatic candidiasis?
multiple hyperechoic masses with hypoechoic halos
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic candidiasis?
hypoechoic, hyperechoic, isoechoic, or mixed echogenicities
what are the sonographic findings of hepatocellular adenomas?
what rare benign liver tumors are usually removed because of the propensity to become malignant
fresh clot is more echogenic than the surrounding liver, may appear cystic or complex
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic hematomas?
isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic mass with a central scar
what are the sonographic findings of focal nodular hyperplasia?
elevated a-fetoprotein, abnormal LFTs, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, weight loss, hepatomegaly, fever, palpable mass, ascites
what are the clinical findings of hepatocellular carcinoma?
solitary, small hypoechoic mass, hetergeneous masses scattered throughout the liver, mass with a hypoechoic halo
what are the sonographic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma?
gallbladder, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, lung
what are the common primary cancers that metastasize to the liver?
weight loss, jaundice, RUQ pain, hepatomegaly, ascites
what are the clinical findings of hepatic metastasis?
hypoechoic or hyperechoic masses, target or bullseye lesion
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic metastasis?
children under 5, palpable abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, elevated serum a-fetoprotein, jaundice
what are the clinical findings of hepatoblastoma?
solid, hyperechoic, or hetergeneous mass with calcifications
what are the sonographic findings of hepatoblastoma?
biliary strictures, cholangitis, biliary sludge and stones, hepatic artery thrombosis, hepatic artery stenosis, hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms, celiac artery stenosis, portal vein stenosis and thrombosis, fluid collections
what are the sonographic signs of rejection of a liver transplant?
cholecystitis that results from the intermittent obstuction of the cystic duct by gallstones
comet tail artifact
a form of reverberation artifact in which there is a band of echoes that taper distal to a strong reflector
the clinical detection of an enlarged, palpable gallbladder caused by a biliary obstruction in the area of the pancreatic head
spiral valves of Heister
folds located within the cystic duct that prevent it from collapsing and distending
shadowing from the gallbladder fossa produced by a gallbladder that is completely filled with gallstones
postprandial state, acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, benign ascites, hepatitis, congestive heart failure, gallbladder carcinoma
what are some causes of diffuse gallbladder wall thickening?
gallbladder polyp, adenomyomatosis, gallbladder carcinoma
what are some causes of focal gallbladder thickening?
obesity, pregnancy, increased parity, gestational diabetes, estrogen therapy, oral contraceptive use, rapid weight loss programs, hemolytic disorder, total parenteral nutrition
what are some predisposing conditions for gallstone development?
asymptomatic, biliary colic, abdominal pain after fatty meals, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, pain that radiates to shoulders
what are some clinical findings of gallstones?
echogenic, nonshadowing, and nonmobile mass that projects from the gallbladder wall into the gallbladder lumen
describe the sonographic appearance of gallbladder polyps
chronic, gangrenous, emphysematous, gallbladder perforation
what is the sequela of acute cholecystitis?
nontender gallbladder, intolerance to fatty foods, nausea, belching
what are the clinical findings of chronic cholecystitis?
possible gallbladder wall thickening, gallstones
what is the sonographic finding for chronic cholecystitis?
elevated symptoms of acute cholecystitis
what are the clinical findings of gangrenous cholecystitis?
linear echogenic membranes within the lumen of the gallbladder, striated gallbladder wall
what are sonographic findings of gangrenous cholecystitis?
elevated symptoms of acute cholecystitis, diabetes
what are the clinical findings of emphysematous cholecystitis?
gas within the gallbladder wall that leads to ring-down artifact
what are the sonographic findings of emphysematous cholecystitis?
small opening or tear in the gallbladder wall
what are the sonographic findings of gallbladder perforation?
RUQ tenderness, epigastric or abdominal pain, leukocytosis, elevation of alkaline phosphate, aminotransferase, bilirubin, fever, pain that radiates to the shoulders, nausea and vomiting
what are the clinical findings for acute cholecystitis?
gallstones, +Murphy's sign, gallbladder wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, sludge
what are the sonographic findings for acute cholecystitis?
focal or diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall, comet tail artifact
what are the sonographic findings of adenomyomatosis?
children, hopitalized patients, immunocompromised people
what types of patients commonly develop acalculous cholecystitis?
gallbladder wall thickening, pericholecystitis, sludge
what are the sonographic findings of acalculous cholecystitis?
>5 cm in diameter, or >8-10 cm in length
what measurements constitute an enlarged gallbladder?
Porcelain gallbladders have been associated with the potential to develop what?
calcification and shadowing from the gallbladder wall
what are the sonographic findings of a porcelain gallbladder?
weight loss, RUQ pain, jaundice, nausea and vomiting, hepatomegaly
what are the clinical findings of gallbladder carcinoma?
nonmobile mass within the gallbladder lumen, gallstones >2cm, diffuse or focal gallbladder wall thickening, irregular mass that may completely fill the gallbladder fossa, invasion of the mass into surrounding lier tissue
what are the sonographic findings of gallbladder carcinoma?
inflammation of the pancreas secondary to the leakage of pancreatic enzymes from the acinar cells into the parenchyma of the organ
ampulla of Vater
the merging point of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct just before the sphincter of Oddi
a congenital disease described as the narrowing or obliteration of all or a portion of the biliary tree
a yellow pigment found in bile that is produced by the breakdown of old red blood cells by the liver
a congenital disorder characterized by segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts
a radiographic procedure in which contrast is injected into the bile ducts to assess for the presence of disease
the recurring destruction of the pancreatic tissue that results in atrophy, fibrosis, scarring, and the development of calcification within the gland
shadowing seen posterior to gas or air; possibly referred to as a ring-down artifact
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
endoscopic procedure that utilizes fluoroscopy to evaluate the biliary tree and pancreas
the level of the biliary tree where the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct meet; AKA ampulla of Vater
the muscle that controls the emptying of bile and pancreatic juices into the duodenum; may also be referred to as the sphincter of Oddi
a malignant biliary tumor located at the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts
a clinical condition when the patient presents with jaundice, pain, and fever secondary to a lodged stone in the cystic duct
choledocholithiasis, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma
what are the most common causes of common bile duct obstruction
jaundice, elevated bilirubin, elevated alkaline phosphate, RUQ pain
what are the clinical findings of choledocholithiasis?
echogenic foci within the bile duct that may or may not shadow; may have biliary dilation but not always
what are the sonographic findings of choledocholithiasis?
fever, leukocytosis, jaundice, RUQ pain, elevated alkaline phosphate, elevated bilirubin
what are the clinical findings of cholangitis?
biliary dilation, biliary sludge, choledocholithiasis, bile duct wall thickening
what are the sonographic findings of cholangitis?
recent biliary or gastric surgery, emphysematous or prolonged acute cholecystitis, fistula formation
what can pneumobilia be associated with?
recent biliary surgery, symptoms of acute cholecystitis
what are the clinical findings of pneumobilia?
echogenic linear structures within the ducts that produce ring-down artifacts and may have dirty shadowing
what are the sonographic findings of pneumobilia?
jaundice, pruritus, weight loss, abdominal pain, elevated bilirubin, elevated alkaline phosphate
what are the clinical findings of cholangiocarcinoma?
dilated intrahepatic ducts that abruptly terminate at the level of the tumor
what are the sonographic findings of cholangiocarcinoma?
cystic mass in the area of the porta hepatis
what is the sonographic appearance of choledochal cysts?
the cells of the pancreas that carry out the exocrine function and therefore produce amylase, lipase, and sodium bicarbonate
isles of Langerhans
small islands of tissue found within the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagon
the most common form of pancreatic malignancy; typically found within the head of the pancreas
a cyst surrounded by fibrous tissue that consists of pancreatic enzymes that have leaked from the pancreas
the surgical procedure in which the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, some of the bile ducts, and the proximal duodenum are removed because of a malignant pancreatic neoplasm; aka Whipple procedure
von Hippel-Lindau disease
a hereditary disease that includes the development of cysts within the pancreas and other organs
the syndrome that includes an excessive secretion of acid by the stomach caused by the presence of a functional gastrinoma within the pancreas
amylase, lipase, sodium bicarbonate, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypolypeptidase
what are the 6 enzymes that assist in the pancreas' exocrine function?
promotes the release of glucose by the liver which increases blood sugar level
what does glucagon do?
splenic and superior mesenteric arteries
where does the pancreatic body and tail blood supply come from?
splenic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, portal vein
what veins drain the pancreas?
what pancreatic structure lies right lateral to superior mesenteric vein, anterior to IVC, inferior to portal vein
elevated amylase (within 24 hours), elevated lipase (within 72 hours), abdominal pain, back pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of acute pancreatitis?
can be diffuse or focal, enlarged, hypoechoic, fluid collections, possible pseudocyst
what are the sonographic findings of acute pancreatitis?
persistent epigastric pain, jaundice, back pain
what are the clinical findings of chronic pancreatitis?
heterogeneous atrophic pancreas with poor margins, calcifications, pseudocyst, dilated pancreatic duct
what are the sonographic findings of chronic pancreatitis?
double duct sign
obstruction of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct is known sonographically as:
elevated amylase and/or lipase, loss of appetite, weight loss, jaundice, epigastric pain
what are the clinical findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?
hypoechoic mass, double duct sign, enlarged gallbladder
what are the sonographic findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?
serous (microcystic) and mucinous (macrocystic)
what are the two types of cystadenomas found in the pancreas?
asymptomatic, epigastric pain, weight loss, palpable mass, jaundice
what are the clinical findings of pancreatic cystadenomas?
cystic mass that may appear solid due to small size of cysts
what are the sonographic findings of serous cystadenomas?
von Hippel-Lindau disease, autosomal dominant polycystic disease
what diseases can cause true pancreatic cysts?
a small, round island of splenic tissue often located near the splenic hilum or tail of pancreas
a disease that results from the inhalation of an airborne fungus that can affect the lungs and may spread to other organs
sickle cell anemia
an inherited disease in which the body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells
severe anemia; extramedullary hematopoiesis
in what cases would the spleen's hematopoietic function return to an adult? and what is this called?
the spleen removes irregular cells from the bloodstream and retains them through a process called what?
superior mesenteric vein
the splenic vein joins with the ________ posterior to the pancreatic neck to form the portal vein
palpable enlarged spleen, hemolytic abnormalities, trauma, infection
what are the clinical findings of splenomegaly?
small, echogenic foci that may shadow
what are the sonographic findings of granulomatous disease of the spleen?
acquired renal cystic disease
a cystic disease of the kidney that is often the result of chronic hemodialysis
a common benign renal tumor that consists of a network of blood vessels, muscle, and fat
autosomal dominant polycystic disease
an inherited disease that results in renal, liver, and pancreatic cysts late in life
autosomal recessive polycystic disease
an inherited renal disease that results in bilateral enlargement of the fetal kidneys and microscopic renal cysts
the formation of air within the kidney parenchyma secondary to bacterial infiltration
the dilation of the renal collecting system resulting from the obstruction of the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder
medullary sponge kidney
a congenital disorder characterized by the accumulation of calcium within abnormally dilated collecting ducts located within the medulla
multicystic dysplastic kidney disease
a renal disease thought to be caused by an early renal obstruction; leads to the development of multiple noncommunicating cysts of varying sizes in the renal fossa
a kidney disorder caused by damage to the glomeruli, which results in excess amounts of protein in the urine and the swelling of the ankles, face, and feet due to accumulation of excess water
a bladder that is poorly functioning secondary to any type of neurological disorder
posterior urethral valves
irregular thin membranes of tissue located within the male posterior urethra that do not allow urine to exit the urethra
prune belly syndrome
a syndrome that is a consequence of the abdominal wall musculature being stretched by an extremely enlarged urinary bladder
a sharp pain in the lower back that radiates into the groin and is typically associated with the passage of a urinary stone through the ureter
a ratio calculated by dividing the highest renal artery velocity by the highest aortic velocity obtained at the level of the renal arteries
cone-shaped structures located within the renal medulla that contains part of the nephron
the portion of the kidney containing the minor calices, major calices, renal pelvis, and infundibula
a disease characterized by the buildup of fibrous tissue within the retroperitoneum; this mass may involve the abdominal aorta, IVC, ureters, sacrum
a large urinary stone that completely fills and takes the shape of the renal pelvis
transitional cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of the urinary tract that is often found within the urinary bladder or within the renal pelvis
trigone of the urinary bladder
the area within the urinary bladder where the two ureteral orifices and urethral orifice are located
a systemic disorder that leads to the development of tumors within various organs
a pelvic abscess involving the uterine tubes and ovaries that is often caused by PID
a tubular structure that is a remnant of embryonic development, which extends from the umbilicus to the apex of the bladder
a radiographic examination that involves the assessment of the urinary bladder and distal ureter for urinary reflux and other abnormalities
von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
an inherited disorder characterized by tumors of the central nervous system and the development of cysts within the kidneys, renal cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytomas
a rare chronic form of pyelonephritis that is typically the result of a chronic obstructive process
acute and chronic pyelonephritis, renal cell carcinoma, infarction, trauma, kidney stones
what does hematuria indicate?
masses, glomerulonephritis, infection, nephrotic syndrome, acute or chronic pyelonephritis, urinary calculi
what does proteinuria indicate?
elevated BUN and creatinine, oliguria, hypertension, leukocytosis, hematuria, edema, hypovolemia
what are the clinical findings of acute renal failure?
diabetes mellitus, malaise, elevated BUN and creatinine, fatigue, hypertension, hyperkalemia
what are the clinical findings of chronic renal failure?
small, echogenic kidneys, loss of normal corticomedullary differentation, renal cysts
what are the sonographic findings of chronic renal failure?
3rd or 4th decade of life, decreased renal function, UTI, renal calculi, flank pain, hematuria, abdominal mass
what are the clinical findings of Autosomal Dominant polycystic kidney disease?
bilateral enlarged kidneys, numerous cortical renal cysts
what are the sonographic findings of Autosomal Dominant polycystic kidney disease?
clinical findings of renal failure
what are the clinical findings of Autosomal Recessive polycystic kidney disease?
bilateral enlarged echogenic kidneys, loss of corticomedullary differentation
what are the sonographic findings of Autosomal Recessive polycystic kidney disease?
unilateral cysts, hypertrophy of contralateral kidney
what are the sonographic findings of multicystic dysplastic renal disease?
clinical findings of chronic renal failure, history of hemodialysis
what are the clinical findings of acquired renal cystic disease?
kidneys are small first, then enlarge with numerous small cysts
what are the sonographic findings of acquired renal cystic disease?
multiple renal cysts, pancreatic cysts, pheochromocytoma
what are the sonographic findings of on Hippel-Lindau syndrome?
bilateral renal cysts, bilateral angiomyolipomas
what are the sonographic findings of Tuberous Sclerosis?
flank pain, bacteriuria, pyuria, leukocytosis, dysuria, urinary frequency
what are the clinical findings of acute pyelonephritis?
normal, renal enlargement, altered echotexture, compression of renal sinus
what are the sonographic findings of acute pyelonephritis?
hydronephrosis, pus and debris in collecting system
what are the sonographic findings of pyonephrosis?
symptoms of pyelonephritis, high fever, flank pain, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of renal abscesses?
diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised patient, fever, flank pain, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis?
gas or air within the renal parenchyma, dirty shadowing
what are the sonographic findigns of emphysematous pyelonephritis?
flank pain, bacteruria, pyuria, leukocytosis, dysuria, urinary frequency
what are the clinical findings of chronic pyelonephritis?
small, echogenic kidneys with lobulated borders
what are the sonographic findings of chronic pyelonephritis?
immunocompromised, diabetes mellitus, IV drug abuse, catheters, flank pain, fever, chills
what are the clinical findings of renal fungal disease?
fungal balls (hyperechoic, nonshadowing mobile structures)
what are the sonographic findings of renal fungal disease?
recent throat infection, smoky urine, hematuria, proteinuria, fever, hypertension, azotemia
what are the clinical findings of glomerulonephritis?
enlarged kidneys, prominent renal pyramids
what are the sonographic findings of acute glomerulonephritis?
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which controls the release of hormones by the adrenal gland
a syndrome caused by a functioning tumor within the adrenal cortex that produces excess amounts of aldosterone
syndrome in which patients have hypertension, excessive thirst, excessive urination, low levels of potassium in the blood
a syndrome that results from a pituitary or adrenal tumor that causes overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands
syndrome in which patients suffer from obesity, thinning arms and legs, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and severe fatigue
what adrenal hormone is responsible for regulating blood pressure by controlling the amounts of sodium and water in the body?
what adrenal hormone is responsible for glucose metabolism, blood pressure regulation, immune function, inflammatory response?
what hormone accelerates heart rate, increasing blood pressure, opens airways in the lungs, narrows blood vessels in the skin and intestine to increase blood flow to major muscle groups
what hormone accelerates heart rate, increases blood pressure, contracts blood vessels
obesity, thinning arms and legs, hypertension, hirsutism, hyperglycemia, severe fatigue
what are the clinical indications of Cushing syndrome?
hypertension, excessive thirst, excessive urination, high levels of sodium, low levels of potassium
what are the clinical indication of Conn syndrome?
sign and symptoms of Cushing or Conn syndrome; may be asymptomatic
what are the clinical findings of adrenal adenomas?
solid, hypoechoic mass in the area of the adrenal gland
what are the sonographic findings of adrenal adenomas?
uncontrollable hypertension, headaches, tachycardia, tremors, anxiety, excessive sweating
what are the clinical findings of pheochromocytomas?
large, hyperechoic mass in the area of the adrenal gland
what are the sonographic findings of pheochromocytomas?
large, heterogeneous mass containing areas of calcification and hemorrhage; metastasis often present at the time of discovery
what are the sonographic findings of neuroblastoma?
abdominal mass, acute drop in hematocrit and blood pressue
what are the clinical findings of adrenal hemorrhage?
heterogeneous mass in the area of the adrenal gland
what are the sonographic findings of adrenal hemorrhage?
a contained rupture of a blood vessel that is most likely secondary to the disruption of one or more layers of that vessel's walls
the residual channel of a vessel created by the accumulation of a clot within that vessel
high resistance flow
the flow pattern that results from small arteries or arterioles that are contracted, which produces an increase in the resistance to blood flow to the structure that is being supplied
low resistance flow
the flow pattern characterized by persistent forward flow throughout the cardiac cycle
a disorder of the connective tissue characterized by tall stature and aortic and mitral valve insufficiency
small bowel ischemia
a condition resulting in interruption or reduction of the blood supply to the small intestines
an autoimmune disease characterized by periods of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
an abnormality in which fluid is allowed to reflux out of the stomach back into the esophagus
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
a defect in the relaxation of the pyloric sphincter that leads to the enlargement of the pyloric muscles and closure of the pyloric sphincter
the telescoping of one segment of bowel into another; most often the proximal segment of the bowel inserts into the distal segment
a point halfway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the umbilicus; the area of pain and rebound tenderness in patients suffering from acute appendicitis
a situation in which bowel is blocked because of the lack of normal peristalsis of a bowel segment or segments AKA paralytic ileus
when the pyloric sphincter muscle is enlarged and palpable on physical examination of the abdomen
a temporary spasm and thickening of the pyloric sphincter that can replicate the sonographic appearance of pyloric stenosis
red currant jelly stool
feces that contains a mixture of mucus and blood; a common clinical finding in patients with intussuseption
cystic adenomatoid malformation
a mass consisting of abnormal bronchial and lung tissue the develops within the fetal chest
the replacement of normal air-filled alveoli with fluid, inflammation, blood, or neoplastic cells
a disease characterized by the buildup of fibrous tissue within the retroperitoneum; this mass may involve the aorta, IVC, ureters, and sacrum
the enlargement of the abdominal lymph nodes located within the abdomen
echogenic focus with shadowing, twinkle sign posterior to stone, possible hydronephrosis
what are the sonographic findings of urolithiasis?
hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, UTI, history of urinary calculi
what are the clinical findings of nephrocalcinosis?
echogenic renal pyramids, echogenic foci within the cortex
what are the sonographic findings of nephrocalcinosis?
hyperechoic, vascular mass with internal calcifications
what are the sonographic findings of renal adenomas?
anorexia, flank pain, gross hematuria, hypertension, palpable mass, smoker, weight loss
what are the clinical findings of renal cell carcinoma?
hypoechoic or isoechoic solid mass in the kidney
what are the sonographic findings of renal cell carcinoma?
hypoechoic or isoechoic mass within the renal sinus
what are the sonographic findings of transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney?
bilateral hypoechoic or hyperechoic masses
what are the sonographic findings of metastasis of the kidney?
smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes
what are the clinical findings of renal artery stenosis?
thickening and calcification of the renal artery, renal/aorta ratio >3.5, tardus parvus
what are the sonographic findings of renal artery stenosis?
heterogeneous renal echotexture, enlarged renal vein, absent renal vein Doppler signals
what are the sonographic findings of renal vein thrombosis?
pulsatile abdominal mass, abdominal bruit, back pain, abdominal pain, lower extremity pain
what are the clinical findings of AAA?
Diameter of abdominal aorta measure >3cm, thrombus within the lumen of the aorta
what are the sonographic findings of AAA?
intense chest pain, hypertension, abdominal pain, lower back pain, neurologic systems
what are the clinical findings of an aortic dissection?
intimal flap may be noted within the aortic lumen
what are the sonographic findings of an aortic dissection?
decreased hematocrit, hypotension, pulsatile abdominal mass, abdominal bruit, back pain, abdominal pain, lower extremity pain
what are the clinical findings of an aortic rupture?
abdominal aneurysm with an adjacent hematoma
what are the sonographic findings of an aortic rupture?
recent catherterization, surgical procedure, or trauma; pulsatile mass in the area of the puncture location
what are the clinical findings of a pseudoaneurysm?
perivascular hematoma containing swirling blood an has a neck connecting it to the vessel
what are the sonographic findings of a pseudoaneurysm?
the hypofunctioning thyroid nodules seen on a nuclear medicine study that have a malignant potential
the most common cause of hyperthyroidism that produces bulging eyes, heat intolerance, nervousness, weight loss, hair loss
the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules seen on a nuclear medicine study that are almost always benign
a normal variant of the thyroid gland in which there is a superior extension of the isthmus
thyroglossal duct cysts
benign congenital cysts located within the midline of the neck superior to the thyroid gland and near the hyoid bone
the sonographic appearance of hypervascularity demonstrated with color Doppler imaging of the thyroid gland
the embryonic duct that is located from the base of the tongue to the midportion of the anterior neck
left side posterior to the trachea and thyroid
what is the location of the esophagus in relation to the thyroid?
aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
what is the function of triiodothyronine (T3)?
heterogeneous echotexture, may contain multiple nodules with cystic and solid components
what is the sonographic findings of a goiter?
bulging eyes, heat intolerance, nervousness, weight loss, hair loss
what are the clinical findings of graves disease?
enlarged gland, heterogeneous or diffusely hypoechoic echotexture, thyroid inferno
what are the sonographic findings of graves disease?
depression, increased cold sensitivity, elevated blood cholesterol levels, slight weight gain may occur
what are the clinical findings of hashimoto thyroiditis?
mild enlargement of the thyroid gland, heterogeneous echotexture, hypervascular gland
what are the sonographic findings of hashimoto thyroiditis?
>1cm, rounded shape, loss of the echogenic hilum, calcifications
what are the sonographic findings of abnormal lymph nodes?
a protein produced by the fetal yolk sac, fetal gastrointestinal tract, and the fetal liver; may also be produced by some malignant tumors
the testicular appendage located between the head of the epididymis and the superior pole of the testis
the condition in which the patient lacks the normal posterior fixation of the testis and epididymis to the scrotal wall
"blue dot" sign
the appearance of a torsed testicular appendage that can be observed as a blue dot just under the skin surface
gland that secretes preejaculate fluid that lubricates the penile urethra prior to ejaculation
a coiled structure that is attached to the testicle and the posterior scrotal wall that is responsible for storing sperm
germ cell tumor
a type of neoplasm derived from germ cells of the gonads; may be found outside of the reproductive tract
human chorionic gonadotropin
hormone produced by the trophoblastic cells of the early placenta; may also by used as a tumor marker in nongravid patients and males
a fluid collection within the scrotum; most often found between the 2 laters of the tunica vaginalis
a condition in which a male has an extra X chromosome; characteristic features include small testicles, infertility, gynecomastia, long legs, and abnormally low intelligence
the structure that is formed by the tunica albuginea and contains the rete testis
small glands located superior to the prostate gland and posterior to the base of the bladder, which secrete an alkaline-based fluid
the structure that travels through the inguinal canal and contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph nodes, and the cremaster muscle
a common cyst found often in the head of the epididymis that is composed of nonviable sperm, fat, cellular debris, and lymphocytes
a condition that results from the arterial blood supply to the testicle being cut off secondary to the twisting of the testicular axis