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ascites

a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity

chromaffin cells

the cells in the adrenal medulla that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine

endoscopy

a means of looking inside of the human body by utilizing an endoscope

exudate ascites

a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity that may be associated with cancer

hematocrit

the laboratory value that indicates the amount of red blood cells in blood

leukocytosis

an elevated white blood cell count

nuclear medicine

a diagnostic imaging modality that utilizes the administration of radionuclides into the human body for an analysis of the function of organs, or for the treatment of various abnormalities

oncocytes

large cells of glandular origin

paracentesis

a procedure that uses a needle to drain fluid from the abdominal cavity for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons

parietal peritoneum

the portion of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavity

radiography

a diagnostic imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation for imaging bones, organs, and some soft tissue structures

thoracentesis

a procedure that uses a needle to drain fluid from the pleural cavity for either diagnostic or therapeutic reasons

transudate ascites

a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity often associated with cirrhosis

visceral peritoneum

the portion of the peritoneum that is closely applied to each organ

American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

what entity publishes the practice guidelines for sonograms

hematocrit

what lab value will be decreased if the patient has bleeding secondary to trauma or hemorrhage?

gallbladder, liver (except for the bare area), ovaries, spleen (except for the splenic hilum), stomach

list the intraperitoneal organs

peritoneum

what is the double lining of the abdominal cavity?

parietal peritoneum

forms a closed sac, except for two openings in the female pelvis (fallopian tubes)

visceral peritoneum

the serosal layer that covers each organ

greater sac and lesser sac

the abdominal peritoneum can be divided into two sections:

anteriorly

where are the retroperitoneal structures covered with peritoneum?

from the diaphragm to the pelvis

where is the greater sac located?

posterior to the stomach, anterior to the pancreas

where is the lesser sac located?

abdominal lymph nodes, adrenal glands, aorta, ascending and descending colon, duodenum, IVC, kidneys, pancreas, prostate gland, ureters, urinary bladder, uterus

what organs are considered retroperitoneal?

acute cholecystitis, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, ectopic pregnancy, malignancy, portal hypertension, ruptured AAA

list some pathologies associated with ascites

complex fluid with loculations and produce matting of the bowel

what does exudate ascites look like?

simple and anechoic

how does transudate ascites appear?

inferior to the diaphragm

where is the subphrenic space?

right and left

how is the subphrenic space divided?

inferior to the liver

where is the subhepatic space?

anterior and posterior

how is the subhepatic space divided?

Morrison's pouch

what is another name for the posterior subhepatic space

paracolic gutters

what cavity space extends alongside the ascending and descending colon on both sides of the abdomen?

between the urinary bladder and rectum

where is the posterior cul-de-sac located on a male?

rectovesical pouch

what is another name for the posterior cul-de-sac on a male?

between the uterus and rectum

where is the posterior cul-de-sac located on a female?

rectouterine pouch

what is another name for the posterior cul-de-sac on a female?

between the urinary bladder and the uterus

where is the anterior cul-de-sac located?

benign tumor of glandular origin

define adenoma

benign tumor of blood vessels, muscle, and fat

define angiomyolipoma

kidneys

what is a common location of angiomyolipomas?

abnormal accumulation of cells within a focal region of an organ

define focal nodular hyperplasia

the liver

where is focal nodular hyperplasia commonly found?

benign tumor consisting of a group of inflammatory cells

define granuloma

liver and spleen

where are granulomas commonly found?

benign tumor that secretes gastrin

define gastrinoma

the pancreas

where are gastrinomas commonly found?

benign tumor consisting of an overgrowth of normal cells of an organ

hamartoma

kidneys

where are hamartomas usually found?

benign tumor consisting of blood vessels

define hemangioma

liver, spleen, kidney

where are hemangiomas usually found?

localized collection of blood

define hematoma

benign tumor that secretes insulin

define insulinoma

pancreas

where are insulinomas usually found?

benign tumor that consists of fat

define lipoma

liver, spleen, kidney

where are lipomas commonly found?

benign tumor consisting of oncocytes

define oncocytoma

kidney

where are oncocytomas commonly found?

benign tumor that consists of chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland

define pheochromocytoma

adrenal gland

where are pheochromocytomas usually found?

benign tumor that consists of tissue from all three germ layers

define teratoma

testicle and ovary

where are teratomas usually found?

localized collection of urine

define urinoma

next to a kidney transplant

where can urinomas be found?

cancer of glandular origin

define adenocarcinoma

pancreas and gastrointestinal tract

where are adenocarcinomas usually found?

cancer in the lining of vessels

define angiosarcoma

spleen

where are angiosarcomas usually found?

cancer that consists of trophoblastic cells

define choriocarcinoma

testicle

where is choriocarcinomas usually found?

cancer of the bile ducts

define cholangiocarcinoma

biliary tree

where is cholangiocarcinoma found?

cancer that is fundamentally adenocarcinoma with cystic components

define cystadenocarcinoma

pancreas

where can cystadenocarcinoma commonly be found?

cancer that is of germ cell origin

define embryonal cell carcinoma and yolk sac tumor

testicle

where are embryonal cell carcinoma and yolk sac tumors usually found?

cancer of aggressive abnormal epithelial cells

define follicular carcinoma

thyroid

where is follicular carcinoma usually found?

cancer that originates in the hepatocytes

define hepatocellular carcinoma

liver

where is hepatocellular carcinoma found?

cancer that originates in the tubules of the kidney

define hypernephroma

hypernephroma

what is another name for renal cell carcinoma?

cancer of the lymphatic system

define lymphoma

spleen and kidney

where is lymphoma commonly found?

cancer that has formation of many irregular, fingerlike projections

define papillary carcinoma

thyroid

where is papillary carcinoma commonly found?

cancer that originates in the seminiferous tubules

define seminoma

testicle

where are seminomas usually found?

cancer that originates in the transitional epithelium of an organ or structure

define transitional cell carcinoma

bladder, ureter, kidney

where is transitional cell carcinoma usually found?

adrenal gland

where are neuroblastomas usually found?

liver

where are hepatoblastomas usually found?

kidney

where are nephroblastomas usually found?

kidney

where are Wilm's tumors usually found?

amebic abscess

an abscess that develops from a parasite that grows in the colon and invades the liver via the portal vein

anemia

the condition of having a deficient number of red blood cells

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

an inherited disease that results in the development of renal, liver, and pancreatic cysts late in life

bare area

the region of the liver not covered by peritoneum

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

a growth disorder syndrome synonymous with enlargement of several organs including the skull, tongue, and liver

Budd-Chiari syndrome

a syndrome described as the occlusion of the hepatic veins, with possible co-existing occlusion of the IVC

cavernous hemangioma

the most common benign liver tumor

cholangitis

inflammation of the bile ducts

cirrhosis

condition defined as hepatocyte death, fibrosis and necrosis of the liver, and the subsequent development of regenerating nodules

dysentery

infection of the bowel which leads to diarrhea that may contain mucus and/or blood

echinococcal cyst or hydatid liver cyst

a liver cyst that develops from a tapeworm that lives in dog feces; originates from echinococcus granulosis

echinococcus granulosus

the parasite responsible for the development of hydatid liver cysts

fatty liver

a reversible disease characterized by deposits of fat within the hepatocytes

gastroesophageal junction

the junction between the stomach and the esophagus

Glisson capsule

the thin fibrous casing of the liver

hemochromatosis

an inherited disease characterized by disproportionate absorption of dietary iron

hemopoiesis

the formation and development of blood cells

hepatic candidiasis

a hepatic mass that results from the spread of fungus in the blood to the liver

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

hepatocellular adenoma

the primary form of liver cancer

hepatofugal

blood flows away from the liver

hepatoma

the malignant tumor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

hepatopetal

blood flows toward the liver

hepatosplenomegaly

enlargement of the liver and the spleen

hypovolemia

decreased blood volume

jaundice

the yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae; found in liver disease and/or biliary obstuction

Kupffer cells

specialized macrophages within the liver that engulf pathogens and damaged cells

leukocytosis

an elevated white blood cell count

liver hilum

the area of the liver where the common bile duct exits the liver and portal vein and hepatic artery enter the liver; also referred to as the porta hepatis

mass effect

the ability of a tumor or some other foreign entity to distort normal anatomy

periportal cuffing

an increase in the echogenicity of the portal triads as seen in hepatitis

porta hepatis

the area of the liver where the portal vein and hepatic artery enter and the hepatic ducts exit; also referred to as the liver hilum

portal hypertension

the elevation of blood pressure within the portal venous system

portal triads

an assembly of a small branch of the portal vein, bile duct, and hepatic artery that surround each liver lobule

portal vein thrombosis

the development of a clot within the portal vein

pyogenic hepatic abscess

the liver abscess that can result from the spread of infection from inflammatory conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and endocarditis

quadrate lobe

the medial segment of the left lobe

recanalization

the formation of new canals or pathways

Riedel lobe

a tonguelike extension of the right hepatic lobe

sequela

an illness resulting from another disease, trauma, or injury

serpiginous

twisted or snakelike pattern

starry sky sign

the sonographic sign associated with the appearance of periportal cuffing in which there is an increased echogenicity of the walls of the portal triads

transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

the therapy for portal hypertension that involves the placement of a stent between the portal veins and hepatic veins to reduce portal systemic pressure

carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, aminoacid metabolism, removal of waste products, vitamin and mineral storage, drug inactivation, synthesis and secretion of bile

name the 7 vital functions of the liver

alkaline phosphate, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum bilirubin, prothrombin

name six lab values associated with liver disfunction

cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, gallstones, hepatitis, metastatic liver disease, pancreatic carcinoma

what abnormalities are associated with an elevated alkaline phosphate?

hepatitis, hepatocellular disease, obstructive jaundice

what abnormalities are associated with an elevated alanine aminotransferase?

cirrhosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, metastatic liver disease

what abnormalities are associated with an elevated aspartate aminotransferase?

hepatitis, cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice

what abnormalities are associated with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase?

acute hepatocellular disease

what abnormality is associated with an increased unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin?

biliary tract obstruction

what abnormality is associated with an increased conjugated (direct) bilirubin?

cirrhosis and other chronic liver cell disease

what abnormalities are associated with a total increase in bilirubin?

metastases to the liver

what abnormality is associated with a prolonged prothrombin time?

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