a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity
the cells in the adrenal medulla that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
a means of looking inside of the human body by utilizing an endoscope
a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity that may be associated with cancer
the laboratory value that indicates the amount of red blood cells in blood
a diagnostic imaging modality that utilizes the administration of radionuclides into the human body for an analysis of the function of organs, or for the treatment of various abnormalities
large cells of glandular origin
a procedure that uses a needle to drain fluid from the abdominal cavity for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons
the portion of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavity
a diagnostic imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation for imaging bones, organs, and some soft tissue structures
a procedure that uses a needle to drain fluid from the pleural cavity for either diagnostic or therapeutic reasons
a collection of abdominal fluid within the peritoneal cavity often associated with cirrhosis
the portion of the peritoneum that is closely applied to each organ
American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
what entity publishes the practice guidelines for sonograms
what lab value will be decreased if the patient has bleeding secondary to trauma or hemorrhage?
gallbladder, liver (except for the bare area), ovaries, spleen (except for the splenic hilum), stomach
list the intraperitoneal organs
what is the double lining of the abdominal cavity?
forms a closed sac, except for two openings in the female pelvis (fallopian tubes)
the serosal layer that covers each organ
greater sac and lesser sac
the abdominal peritoneum can be divided into two sections:
where are the retroperitoneal structures covered with peritoneum?
from the diaphragm to the pelvis
where is the greater sac located?
posterior to the stomach, anterior to the pancreas
where is the lesser sac located?
abdominal lymph nodes, adrenal glands, aorta, ascending and descending colon, duodenum, IVC, kidneys, pancreas, prostate gland, ureters, urinary bladder, uterus
what organs are considered retroperitoneal?
acute cholecystitis, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, ectopic pregnancy, malignancy, portal hypertension, ruptured AAA
list some pathologies associated with ascites
complex fluid with loculations and produce matting of the bowel
what does exudate ascites look like?
simple and anechoic
how does transudate ascites appear?
inferior to the diaphragm
where is the subphrenic space?
right and left
how is the subphrenic space divided?
inferior to the liver
where is the subhepatic space?
anterior and posterior
how is the subhepatic space divided?
what is another name for the posterior subhepatic space
what cavity space extends alongside the ascending and descending colon on both sides of the abdomen?
between the urinary bladder and rectum
where is the posterior cul-de-sac located on a male?
what is another name for the posterior cul-de-sac on a male?
between the uterus and rectum
where is the posterior cul-de-sac located on a female?
what is another name for the posterior cul-de-sac on a female?
between the urinary bladder and the uterus
where is the anterior cul-de-sac located?
benign tumor of glandular origin
benign tumor of blood vessels, muscle, and fat
what is a common location of angiomyolipomas?
abnormal accumulation of cells within a focal region of an organ
define focal nodular hyperplasia
where is focal nodular hyperplasia commonly found?
benign tumor consisting of a group of inflammatory cells
liver and spleen
where are granulomas commonly found?
benign tumor that secretes gastrin
where are gastrinomas commonly found?
benign tumor consisting of an overgrowth of normal cells of an organ
where are hamartomas usually found?
benign tumor consisting of blood vessels
liver, spleen, kidney
where are hemangiomas usually found?
localized collection of blood
benign tumor that secretes insulin
where are insulinomas usually found?
benign tumor that consists of fat
liver, spleen, kidney
where are lipomas commonly found?
benign tumor consisting of oncocytes
where are oncocytomas commonly found?
benign tumor that consists of chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland
where are pheochromocytomas usually found?
benign tumor that consists of tissue from all three germ layers
testicle and ovary
where are teratomas usually found?
localized collection of urine
next to a kidney transplant
where can urinomas be found?
cancer of glandular origin
pancreas and gastrointestinal tract
where are adenocarcinomas usually found?
cancer in the lining of vessels
where are angiosarcomas usually found?
cancer that consists of trophoblastic cells
where is choriocarcinomas usually found?
cancer of the bile ducts
where is cholangiocarcinoma found?
cancer that is fundamentally adenocarcinoma with cystic components
where can cystadenocarcinoma commonly be found?
cancer that is of germ cell origin
define embryonal cell carcinoma and yolk sac tumor
where are embryonal cell carcinoma and yolk sac tumors usually found?
cancer of aggressive abnormal epithelial cells
define follicular carcinoma
where is follicular carcinoma usually found?
cancer that originates in the hepatocytes
define hepatocellular carcinoma
where is hepatocellular carcinoma found?
cancer that originates in the tubules of the kidney
what is another name for renal cell carcinoma?
cancer of the lymphatic system
spleen and kidney
where is lymphoma commonly found?
cancer that has formation of many irregular, fingerlike projections
define papillary carcinoma
where is papillary carcinoma commonly found?
cancer that originates in the seminiferous tubules
where are seminomas usually found?
cancer that originates in the transitional epithelium of an organ or structure
define transitional cell carcinoma
bladder, ureter, kidney
where is transitional cell carcinoma usually found?
where are neuroblastomas usually found?
where are hepatoblastomas usually found?
where are nephroblastomas usually found?
where are Wilm's tumors usually found?
an abscess that develops from a parasite that grows in the colon and invades the liver via the portal vein
the condition of having a deficient number of red blood cells
autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
an inherited disease that results in the development of renal, liver, and pancreatic cysts late in life
the region of the liver not covered by peritoneum
a growth disorder syndrome synonymous with enlargement of several organs including the skull, tongue, and liver
a syndrome described as the occlusion of the hepatic veins, with possible co-existing occlusion of the IVC
the most common benign liver tumor
condition defined as hepatocyte death, fibrosis and necrosis of the liver, and the subsequent development of regenerating nodules
infection of the bowel which leads to diarrhea that may contain mucus and/or blood
echinococcal cyst or hydatid liver cyst
a liver cyst that develops from a tapeworm that lives in dog feces; originates from echinococcus granulosis
the parasite responsible for the development of hydatid liver cysts
a reversible disease characterized by deposits of fat within the hepatocytes
the junction between the stomach and the esophagus
the thin fibrous casing of the liver
an inherited disease characterized by disproportionate absorption of dietary iron
the formation and development of blood cells
a hepatic mass that results from the spread of fungus in the blood to the liver
inflammation of the liver
the primary form of liver cancer
blood flows away from the liver
the malignant tumor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma
enlargement of the liver
blood flows toward the liver
enlargement of the liver and the spleen
the yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae; found in liver disease and/or biliary obstuction
specialized macrophages within the liver that engulf pathogens and damaged cells
the area of the liver where the common bile duct exits the liver and portal vein and hepatic artery enter the liver; also referred to as the porta hepatis
the ability of a tumor or some other foreign entity to distort normal anatomy
an increase in the echogenicity of the portal triads as seen in hepatitis
the area of the liver where the portal vein and hepatic artery enter and the hepatic ducts exit; also referred to as the liver hilum
the elevation of blood pressure within the portal venous system
an assembly of a small branch of the portal vein, bile duct, and hepatic artery that surround each liver lobule
portal vein thrombosis
the development of a clot within the portal vein
pyogenic hepatic abscess
the liver abscess that can result from the spread of infection from inflammatory conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and endocarditis
the medial segment of the left lobe
the formation of new canals or pathways
a tonguelike extension of the right hepatic lobe
an illness resulting from another disease, trauma, or injury
twisted or snakelike pattern
starry sky sign
the sonographic sign associated with the appearance of periportal cuffing in which there is an increased echogenicity of the walls of the portal triads
transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
the therapy for portal hypertension that involves the placement of a stent between the portal veins and hepatic veins to reduce portal systemic pressure
carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, aminoacid metabolism, removal of waste products, vitamin and mineral storage, drug inactivation, synthesis and secretion of bile
name the 7 vital functions of the liver
alkaline phosphate, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum bilirubin, prothrombin
name six lab values associated with liver disfunction
cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, gallstones, hepatitis, metastatic liver disease, pancreatic carcinoma
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated alkaline phosphate?
hepatitis, hepatocellular disease, obstructive jaundice
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated alanine aminotransferase?
cirrhosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, metastatic liver disease
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated aspartate aminotransferase?
hepatitis, cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice
what abnormalities are associated with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase?
acute hepatocellular disease
what abnormality is associated with an increased unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin?
biliary tract obstruction
what abnormality is associated with an increased conjugated (direct) bilirubin?
cirrhosis and other chronic liver cell disease
what abnormalities are associated with a total increase in bilirubin?
metastases to the liver
what abnormality is associated with a prolonged prothrombin time?
extrahepatic duct obstruction
what abnormality is assoicated with a shortened prothrombin time?
what is the largest parenchymal organ in the body?
hepatocytes, biliary epithelial cells, Kupffer cells
what types of cells compose liver lobules?
The Couinaud system
which system separates the liver into eight surgical segments?
between the gallbladder fossa and the round ligament
where is the quadrate lobe located?
3 (right, left, and caudate)
the liver can fundamentally be divided into how many lobes?
anterior and posterior
how is the right lobe of the liver divided?
right hepatic vein
what divides the right lobe of the liver into its two segments?
main lobar fissure (also the middle hepatic vein)
what separates the right and left lobes of the liver
medial and lateral
how is the left lobe of the liver divided?
medial segment of the left lobe
what is another name for the quadrate lobe?
true or false? the caudate lobe has its own separate blood supply and venous drainage
what percentage of the liver's total blood supply comes from the portal vein?
it is derived from the intestines
why is the blood within the portal vein partially oxygenated?
what percentage of the liver's total blood supply comes from the hepatic artery?
what is the typical ap measurement of the main portal vein?
enlargement of the main portal vein is indicative of:
normal portal veins ________ in size as they approach the diaphragm
an increase in the amount of collagen within the walls
why are the walls of the portal veins echogenic?
hepatic veins ________ in size as they approach the diaphragm
what phasicity do the portal veins have?
what phasicity do the hepatic veins have?
right sided heart abnormalities
what does enlarged hepatic veins signify?
main portal vein, common bile duct, hepatic artery
what structures are located within the porta hepatitis?
is the Riedel lobe more commonly seen in men or women?
papillary process of the caudate lobe
an inferior extension of the caudate lobe that can resemble a mass
hepatomegaly is suspected if the mid-hepatic line measures greater than:
obesity, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, glycogen storage disease, and the use of some drugs
what are some causes of a fatty liver?
what are the symptoms of a fatty liver?
diffusely echogenic with increased attenuation of the sound beam
how does diffuse fatty liver appear sonographically?
hyperechoic area adjacent to the gallbladder, near the porta hepatis, or the entire medial segment of the left lobe may appear echogenic
how does fatty focal infiltration appear sonographically?
hypoechoic area adjacent to the gallbladder, near the porta hepatis, or the entire medial segment of the left lobe may be spared. Can appear much like pericholecystic fluid when seen adjacent to the gallbladder
how does focal sparing appear sonographically?
cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma
what can hepatitis ultimately lead to?
A & B
what are the two most common forms of hepatitis?
fecal-oral route in contaminated food or water
how is hepatitis A spread?
contact with contaminated body fluids, mother to infant transmission, or inadvertent blood contact
how is hepatitis B spread?
contact with blood and body fluids
how is hepatitis C spread?
chills, dark urine, elevated LFTs, fatigue, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, nausea, vomiting
what are the symptoms of hepatitis?
normal liver, enlarged hypoechoic liver, periportal cuffing, gallbladder wall thickening
what are the sonographic findings of hepatitis?
the type of jaundice that is on a cellular level, no associated with biliary obstruction
what is the most common cause of cirrhosis?
ascites, diarrhea, elevated LFTs, fatigue, hepatomegaly, jaundice, splenomegaly, weight loss
what are the symptoms of cirrhosis?
hepatomegaly (initial), shrunken right lobe of liver, enlarged caudate and left lobe, nodular surface irregularity, coarse echotexture, splenomegaly, ascites, monophasic flow within the hepatic veins, hepatofugal flow within the portal veins
what are the sonographic findings of cirrhosis?
abnormal LFTs, ascites, diarrhea, fatigue, hepatomegaly, jaundice, weight loss
what are the symptoms of portal hypertension?
hepatomegaly (initial), shrunken right lobe of liver, enlarged caudate and left lobe, nodular surface irregularity, coarse echotexture, splenomegaly, ascites, monophasic flow within the hepatic veins, hepatofugal flow within the portal veins, enlargement of the portal vein, enlargement of SMV, enlargement and reversed flow within the coronary vein, abdominal varicosities and the splenic hilum, renal hilum, and gastroesophageal junction, patent paraumbilical vein, collateral development at the splenic and renal hilum
what are the sonographic findings of portal hypertension?
hepatocellular carcinoma, portal hypertension, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, surgery
what conditions are associated with portal vein thrombosis?
abdominal pain, elevated LFTs, hypovolemia, leukocytosis, low grade fever, nausea, vomiting
what are the symptoms of portal vein thrombosis?
echogenic thrombus within the portal vein, cavernous transformation of the portal veins
what are the sonographic findings of portal vein thrombosis?
cavernous transformation of the portal vein
what is the term for the tiny mesh of blood vessels in the area of the portal vein that occurs with portal vein thrombosis
ascites, elevated LFTs, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, upper abdominal pain
what are the clinical findings of Budd Chiari syndrome?
nonvisualization or reduced visualization of the hepatic veins, thrombus within the hepatic veins, enlarged caudate lobe, lack of flow within the hepatic veins, narrowing of the IVC
what are the sonographic findings of Budd Chiari syndrome?
what portion of life are true hepatic cysts usually encountered?
asymptomatic, normal LFTs, polycystic kidney disease
what are the clinical findings of hepatic cysts?
anechoic mass or masses with smooth walls and posterior enhancement, may have irregular shapes, clusters of cysts may be noted
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic cysts?
leukocytosis, low grade fever, nausea, obstructive jaundice, RUQ tenderness
what are the clinical findings of hydatid liver cysts?
complex anechoic mass or masses containing some debris
what are the sonographic findings of hydatid liver cysts?
fever, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, possible abnormal LFTs, RUQ pain
what are the clinical findings of a pyogenic hepatic abscess?
complex cyst with thick walls, mass with debris, septations, or air
what are the sonographic findings of a pyogenic abscess?
hepatomegaly, RUQ pain, general malaise, diarrhea, fever, leukocytosis, elevated LFTs, mild anemia
what are the clinical findings of an amebic hepatic abscess?
round, hypoechoic or anechoic mass or masses that contain debris with acoustic enhancement
what are the sonographic findings of an amebic hepatic abscess?
cancer patients, recent organ transplant patients, HIV patients, RUQ pain, fever, hepatomegaly
what are the clincal findings of hepatic candidiasis?
multiple hyperechoic masses with hypoechoic halos
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic candidiasis?
asymptomatic, oral contraceptive use
what are the clinical findings of hepatocellular adenomas?
hypoechoic, hyperechoic, isoechoic, or mixed echogenicities
what are the sonographic findings of hepatocellular adenomas?
what rare benign liver tumors are usually removed because of the propensity to become malignant
trauma, recent surgery, decreased hematocrit
what are the clinical findings of a hepatic hematoma?
fresh clot is more echogenic than the surrounding liver, may appear cystic or complex
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic hematomas?
what are the clinical findings of a cavernous hemangioma?
small, hyperechoic mass
what are the sonographic findings of a cavernous hemangioma?
focal nodular hyperplasia
what is the 2nd most common benign liver tumor?
what are the clinical findings of focal nodular hyperplasia?
isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic mass with a central scar
what are the sonographic findings of focal nodular hyperplasia?
what are the clinical findings of lipomas?
what are the sonographic findings of a lipoma?
elevated a-fetoprotein, abnormal LFTs, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, weight loss, hepatomegaly, fever, palpable mass, ascites
what are the clinical findings of hepatocellular carcinoma?
solitary, small hypoechoic mass, hetergeneous masses scattered throughout the liver, mass with a hypoechoic halo
what are the sonographic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma?
gallbladder, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, lung
what are the common primary cancers that metastasize to the liver?
weight loss, jaundice, RUQ pain, hepatomegaly, ascites
what are the clinical findings of hepatic metastasis?
hypoechoic or hyperechoic masses, target or bullseye lesion
what are the sonographic findings of hepatic metastasis?
children under 5, palpable abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, elevated serum a-fetoprotein, jaundice
what are the clinical findings of hepatoblastoma?
solid, hyperechoic, or hetergeneous mass with calcifications
what are the sonographic findings of hepatoblastoma?
biliary strictures, cholangitis, biliary sludge and stones, hepatic artery thrombosis, hepatic artery stenosis, hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms, celiac artery stenosis, portal vein stenosis and thrombosis, fluid collections
what are the sonographic signs of rejection of a liver transplant?
the inflammation of the gallbladder without associated gallstones
the sudden onset of gallbladder inflammation
benign hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall
pain located in the right upper quadrant in the area of the gallbladder
the surgical removal of the gallbladder
the hormone produced by the duodenum that causes the gallbladder to contract
the presence of a gallstone or gallstones within the biliary tree
cholecystitis that results from the intermittent obstuction of the cystic duct by gallstones
comet tail artifact
a form of reverberation artifact in which there is a band of echoes that taper distal to a strong reflector
the clinical detection of an enlarged, palpable gallbladder caused by a biliary obstruction in the area of the pancreatic head
the duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct
an outpouching of the gallbladder neck
an enlarged gallbladder
the intravenous administration of nutrients and vitamins
a fold in the neck of the gallbladder
the total number of completed pregnancies that have reached the age of viability
the fluid around the gallbladder
inflammation of the peritoneal lining
gallbladder variant when the gallbladder fundus is folded onto itself
the calcification or all of part of the gallbladder wall
tiny pockets within the gallbladder wall
a life-threatening condition caused by the body's response to a systemic infection
spiral valves of Heister
folds located within the cystic duct that prevent it from collapsing and distending
total parenteral nutrition
the feeding of a person intravenously
shadowing from the gallbladder fossa produced by a gallbladder that is completely filled with gallstones
mucosal, fibromuscular, serosal
what are the three distinct layers of the gallbladder?
what artery feeds the gallbladder?
8-10 cm in length and <5 cm in diameter
what is the normal range of gallbladder size?
how thick should the gallbladder wall measure?
postprandial state, acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, benign ascites, hepatitis, congestive heart failure, gallbladder carcinoma
what are some causes of diffuse gallbladder wall thickening?
gallbladder polyp, adenomyomatosis, gallbladder carcinoma
what are some causes of focal gallbladder thickening?
cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate
what do gallstones consist of?
fat, female, fertile, flatulent, fair, forty
6 F's of higher incidence of gallstones?
Crohn disease, sickle cell disease
what pediatric diseases are associated with gallstones?
obesity, pregnancy, increased parity, gestational diabetes, estrogen therapy, oral contraceptive use, rapid weight loss programs, hemolytic disorder, total parenteral nutrition
what are some predisposing conditions for gallstone development?
asymptomatic, biliary colic, abdominal pain after fatty meals, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, pain that radiates to shoulders
what are some clinical findings of gallstones?
echogenic, nonshadowing, and nonmobile mass that projects from the gallbladder wall into the gallbladder lumen
describe the sonographic appearance of gallbladder polyps
a rapidly growing or large gallbladder polyp is worrisome for what condition?
what are the clinical findings of gallbladder polyps?
chronic, gangrenous, emphysematous, gallbladder perforation
what is the sequela of acute cholecystitis?
nontender gallbladder, intolerance to fatty foods, nausea, belching
what are the clinical findings of chronic cholecystitis?
possible gallbladder wall thickening, gallstones
what is the sonographic finding for chronic cholecystitis?
elevated symptoms of acute cholecystitis
what are the clinical findings of gangrenous cholecystitis?
linear echogenic membranes within the lumen of the gallbladder, striated gallbladder wall
what are sonographic findings of gangrenous cholecystitis?
elevated symptoms of acute cholecystitis, diabetes
what are the clinical findings of emphysematous cholecystitis?
gas within the gallbladder wall that leads to ring-down artifact
what are the sonographic findings of emphysematous cholecystitis?
elevated symptoms of acute cholecystitis
what are the clinical findings of gallbladder perforation?
small opening or tear in the gallbladder wall
what are the sonographic findings of gallbladder perforation?
RUQ tenderness, epigastric or abdominal pain, leukocytosis, elevation of alkaline phosphate, aminotransferase, bilirubin, fever, pain that radiates to the shoulders, nausea and vomiting
what are the clinical findings for acute cholecystitis?
gallstones, +Murphy's sign, gallbladder wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, sludge
what are the sonographic findings for acute cholecystitis?
what are the clinical findings of adenomyomatosis?
focal or diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall, comet tail artifact
what are the sonographic findings of adenomyomatosis?
when gallbladder perforation occurs, the patient is at risk of developing what?
children, hopitalized patients, immunocompromised people
what types of patients commonly develop acalculous cholecystitis?
gallbladder wall thickening, pericholecystitis, sludge
what are the sonographic findings of acalculous cholecystitis?
>5 cm in diameter, or >8-10 cm in length
what measurements constitute an enlarged gallbladder?
Porcelain gallbladders have been associated with the potential to develop what?
calcification and shadowing from the gallbladder wall
what are the sonographic findings of a porcelain gallbladder?
weight loss, RUQ pain, jaundice, nausea and vomiting, hepatomegaly
what are the clinical findings of gallbladder carcinoma?
nonmobile mass within the gallbladder lumen, gallstones >2cm, diffuse or focal gallbladder wall thickening, irregular mass that may completely fill the gallbladder fossa, invasion of the mass into surrounding lier tissue
what are the sonographic findings of gallbladder carcinoma?
inflammation of the pancreas secondary to the leakage of pancreatic enzymes from the acinar cells into the parenchyma of the organ
ampulla of Vater
the merging point of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct just before the sphincter of Oddi
a congenital disease described as the narrowing or obliteration of all or a portion of the biliary tree
a condition in which bile is stagnant and allowed to develop into sludge or stones
a yellow pigment found in bile that is produced by the breakdown of old red blood cells by the liver
a congenital disorder characterized by segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts
primary bile duct cancer
a radiographic procedure in which contrast is injected into the bile ducts to assess for the presence of disease
the recurring destruction of the pancreatic tissue that results in atrophy, fibrosis, scarring, and the development of calcification within the gland
partially digested food
shadowing seen posterior to gas or air; possibly referred to as a ring-down artifact
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
endoscopic procedure that utilizes fluoroscopy to evaluate the biliary tree and pancreas
the level of the biliary tree where the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct meet; AKA ampulla of Vater
the muscle that controls the emptying of bile and pancreatic juices into the duodenum; may also be referred to as the sphincter of Oddi
a malignant biliary tumor located at the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts
a clinical condition when the patient presents with jaundice, pain, and fever secondary to a lodged stone in the cystic duct
air within the biliary tree
severe itchiness of the skin
what is the normal ap measurement for the CBD?
within the liver
where is the origin of bile?
what is considered the proximal portion of the biliary tree?
biliary dilation is occur ________ to the level of obstruction
distal common bile duct
where is the most common site for a biliary obstruction?
choledocholithiasis, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma
what are the most common causes of common bile duct obstruction
jaundice, elevated bilirubin, elevated alkaline phosphate, RUQ pain
what are the clinical findings of choledocholithiasis?
echogenic foci within the bile duct that may or may not shadow; may have biliary dilation but not always
what are the sonographic findings of choledocholithiasis?
at what measurement of the bile duct wall should one suspect some form of cholangitis?
fever, leukocytosis, jaundice, RUQ pain, elevated alkaline phosphate, elevated bilirubin
what are the clinical findings of cholangitis?
biliary dilation, biliary sludge, choledocholithiasis, bile duct wall thickening
what are the sonographic findings of cholangitis?
recent biliary or gastric surgery, emphysematous or prolonged acute cholecystitis, fistula formation
what can pneumobilia be associated with?
recent biliary surgery, symptoms of acute cholecystitis
what are the clinical findings of pneumobilia?
echogenic linear structures within the ducts that produce ring-down artifacts and may have dirty shadowing
what are the sonographic findings of pneumobilia?
what are the most common manifestation of cholangiocarcinoma?
jaundice, pruritus, weight loss, abdominal pain, elevated bilirubin, elevated alkaline phosphate
what are the clinical findings of cholangiocarcinoma?
dilated intrahepatic ducts that abruptly terminate at the level of the tumor
what are the sonographic findings of cholangiocarcinoma?
cystic dilatation of the CBD
what is the most common type of choledochal cyst?
jaundice, pain, fever
what are the clinical findings of choledochal cysts?
cystic mass in the area of the porta hepatis
what is the sonographic appearance of choledochal cysts?
cystic renal disease
what condition is Caroli's disease usually seen with?
the cells of the pancreas that carry out the exocrine function and therefore produce amylase, lipase, and sodium bicarbonate
co-existing enlargement of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct
duct of Santorini
the accessory duct of the pancreas
duct of Wirsung
the main pancreatic duct
the first segment of the small intestine
isles of Langerhans
small islands of tissue found within the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagon
islet cell tumors
tumor found within the isles of Langerhans of the pancreas
the most common form of pancreatic malignancy; typically found within the head of the pancreas
a cyst surrounded by fibrous tissue that consists of pancreatic enzymes that have leaked from the pancreas
the surgical procedure in which the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, some of the bile ducts, and the proximal duodenum are removed because of a malignant pancreatic neoplasm; aka Whipple procedure
the peripancreatic fluid collection that results from the inflammation of the pancreas
the posteromedial extension of the pancreatic head
von Hippel-Lindau disease
a hereditary disease that includes the development of cysts within the pancreas and other organs
the syndrome that includes an excessive secretion of acid by the stomach caused by the presence of a functional gastrinoma within the pancreas
aids in digestion
what is the pancreas' exocrine function?
amylase, lipase, sodium bicarbonate, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypolypeptidase
what are the 6 enzymes that assist in the pancreas' exocrine function?
what does amylase do?
what does lipase do?
neutralizes stomach acids
what does sodium bicarbonate do?
what do trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypolypeptidase do?
isles of Langerhans
what performs the endocrine function of the pancreas?
alpha, beta, delta cells
what types of cells make up the isles of Langerhans?
what do alpha cells produce?
what do beta cells produce?
what do delta cells produce?
promotes the release of glucose by the liver which increases blood sugar level
what does glucagon do?
stimulates the body to use up glucagon to produce energy
what does insulin do?
restrains insulin and glucose levels
what does somatostatin do?
where does the pancreatic head blood supply come from?
splenic and superior mesenteric arteries
where does the pancreatic body and tail blood supply come from?
splenic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, portal vein
what veins drain the pancreas?
lack of fat surrounding the pancreas
why does a pediatric pancreas appear more hypoechoic?
what should the main pancreatic duct measure ap?
what should the pancreatic head and body measure ap?
what should the pancreatic tail measure ap?
is the pancreas considered peritoneal or retroperitoneal?
what pancreatic structure lies right lateral to superior mesenteric vein, anterior to IVC, inferior to portal vein
what pancreatic structure lies posterior to SMV and anterior to aorta
what pancreatic structure lies anterior to portal confluence
what pancreatic structure lies anterior to SMV, splenic vein, and SMA
what pancreatic structure's posterior border is marked by the splenic vein
elevated amylase (within 24 hours), elevated lipase (within 72 hours), abdominal pain, back pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of acute pancreatitis?
can be diffuse or focal, enlarged, hypoechoic, fluid collections, possible pseudocyst
what are the sonographic findings of acute pancreatitis?
persistent epigastric pain, jaundice, back pain
what are the clinical findings of chronic pancreatitis?
heterogeneous atrophic pancreas with poor margins, calcifications, pseudocyst, dilated pancreatic duct
what are the sonographic findings of chronic pancreatitis?
what is the most common primary pancreatic malignancy?
in what part of the pancreas is pancreatic adenocarcinoma most commonly found?
double duct sign
obstruction of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct is known sonographically as:
elevated amylase and/or lipase, loss of appetite, weight loss, jaundice, epigastric pain
what are the clinical findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?
hypoechoic mass, double duct sign, enlarged gallbladder
what are the sonographic findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?
serous (microcystic) and mucinous (macrocystic)
what are the two types of cystadenomas found in the pancreas?
which type of cystadenoma is small and always benign?
which type of cystadenoma is large and has malignant potential?
body and tail
in what part of the pancreas are mucinous cystadenocarcinomas most commonly found?
asymptomatic, epigastric pain, weight loss, palpable mass, jaundice
what are the clinical findings of pancreatic cystadenomas?
cystic mass that may appear solid due to small size of cysts
what are the sonographic findings of serous cystadenomas?
multilocular cystic masses
what are the sonographic findings of mucinous cystadenomas?
within the Isles of Langerhans
where can endocrine tumors be found?
insulinoma and gastrinoma
what are the two types of islet cell tumors?
what is the most common type of islet cell tumor?
what syndrome is produced by functional gastrinomas?
low blood sugar symptoms
what are the clinical findings of insulinomas?
what are the sonographic findings of islet cell tumors?
von Hippel-Lindau disease, autosomal dominant polycystic disease
what diseases can cause true pancreatic cysts?
a small, round island of splenic tissue often located near the splenic hilum or tail of pancreas
a rare malignant tumor of the spleen that is derived from blood vessels
an infection of the surface of the heart that can spread to other organs
a herpes virus that can lead to infectious mononucleosis
a disease that results from the inhalation of an airborne fungus that can affect the lungs and may spread to other organs
specialized tissue within the spleen that performs its phagocytic function
a systemic disease that results in the development of granulomas throughout the body
sickle cell anemia
an inherited disease in which the body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells
an area within the spleen that has become necrotic because of a lack of oxygen
specialized lymphatic tissue within the spleen
what is the largest structure of the reticuloendothelial system?
is the spleen retro or intra peritoneal?
filter the peripheral blood
what is the primary objective of the spleen?
what is the largest lymphatic organ?
at what gestational week does the spleen begin to develop?
what is the spleen responsible for in the fetus?
red bone marrow
what primarily produces red blood cells in the adult?
severe anemia; extramedullary hematopoiesis
in what cases would the spleen's hematopoietic function return to an adult? and what is this called?
what does white pulp produce?
the spleen removes irregular cells from the bloodstream and retains them through a process called what?
the spleen cleans red blood cell of unwanted material in a process called what?
superior mesenteric vein
the splenic vein joins with the ________ posterior to the pancreatic neck to form the portal vein
what is the most common abnormality of the spleen?
the spleen should never measure more than ___ in length and ____ in thickness
what is the most common cause of splenomegaly?
palpable enlarged spleen, hemolytic abnormalities, trauma, infection
what are the clinical findings of splenomegaly?
sudden onset of LUQ pain
what are the clinical findings of splenic infarct?
hypoechoic wedge-shaped mass
what are the sonographic findings of an acute splenic infarct?
hyperehcoic wedge-shaped mass
what are the sonographic findings of chronic splenic infarct?
trauma, severe LUQ pain, decreased hematocrit
what are the clinical findings of splenic trauma?
what is the most common benign tumor of the spleen?
small, echogenic foci that may shadow
what are the sonographic findings of granulomatous disease of the spleen?
what are the clinical findings of granulomatous disease of the spleen?
although exceedingly rare, what is the primary malignant tumor of the spleen?
what is the most common malignancy of the spleen?
the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells indicate:
what type of lymphoma can be treated and has a high recovery rate?
non Hodgkin lymphoma
what type of lymphoma is not easily managed but is more common?
breast, lung, skin, ovary
what are the primary cancer locations for splenic metastasis?
mononucleosis, Sickle cell disease
what two diseases can cause splenomegaly in children?
what herpesvirus can lead to infectious mononucleosis?
acquired renal cystic disease
a cystic disease of the kidney that is often the result of chronic hemodialysis
an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys
acute tubular necrosis
damage to the tubule cells within the kidneys that results in renal failure
a common benign renal tumor that consists of a network of blood vessels, muscle, and fat
autosomal dominant polycystic disease
an inherited disease that results in renal, liver, and pancreatic cysts late in life
autosomal recessive polycystic disease
an inherited renal disease that results in bilateral enlargement of the fetal kidneys and microscopic renal cysts
an excess of urea or other nitrogenous compounds in the blood
the presence of bacteria in the urine
benign prostatic hypertrophy
benign enlargement of the prostate gland
an outpouching of the urinary bladder wall
blood urea nitrogen
a measure of the amount of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea
a chronic inflammation of the kidney or kidneys
chronic renal failure
the gradual decrease in renal function over time
columns of Bertin
an extension of the renal cortex located between the renal pyramids
the dilation of the renal collecting system at birth
the accumulation of calcium within the cortex of the kidney
a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism and excreted in urine
an inflammation of the urinary bladder
the muscle that controls the appropriate emptying of the urinary bladder
painful or difficult urination
the formation of air within the kidney parenchyma secondary to bacterial infiltration
an infection of the kidney glomeruli
blood within the urine that is visible by the naked eye
blood within the urine
maintenance of normal body physiology
the dilation of the renal collecting system resulting from the obstruction of the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder
distension of the ureter with fluid due to obstruction
abnormally high levels of potassium in the blood
hypernephroma or renal cell carcinoma
carcinoma of the kidney
an enzyme found within the blood that may be used to monitor renal function
a collection of lymphatic fluid
a feeling of uneasiness
the accumulation of calcium within the medulla of the renal parenchyma
medullary sponge kidney
a congenital disorder characterized by the accumulation of calcium within abnormally dilated collecting ducts located within the medulla
an abnormally enlarged urinary bladder
an enlarged ureter; can be congenital or acquired
multicystic dysplastic kidney disease
a renal disease thought to be caused by an early renal obstruction; leads to the development of multiple noncommunicating cysts of varying sizes in the renal fossa
a small mass located on the wall of a structure
the most common solid malignant pediatric abdominal mass
an accumulation of calcium within the renal parenchyma
the urinary stones located within the kidney
the functional unit of the kidney
a kidney disorder caused by damage to the glomeruli, which results in excess amounts of protein in the urine and the swelling of the ankles, face, and feet due to accumulation of excess water
a bladder that is poorly functioning secondary to any type of neurological disorder
frequent urination at night
a nuclear medicine examination of the urinary bladder and ureters
a scant or decreased urine output
a benign renal tumor that is often found in men in their 60s
a small protrusion of tissue
an abscess that surrounds the kidney
posterior urethral valves
irregular thin membranes of tissue located within the male posterior urethra that do not allow urine to exit the urethra
protein within the uria
prune belly syndrome
a syndrome that is a consequence of the abdominal wall musculature being stretched by an extremely enlarged urinary bladder
the condition of having pus within the collecting system of the kidney
pus within the urine
renal artery stenosis
the narrowing of the renal artery
renal cell adenoma
a benign renal mass
a sharp pain in the lower back that radiates into the groin and is typically associated with the passage of a urinary stone through the ureter
the outer part of the renal parenchyma that is responsible for filtration
a ratio calculated by dividing the highest renal artery velocity by the highest aortic velocity obtained at the level of the renal arteries
the inner part of the parenchyma that is responsible for absorption
cone-shaped structures located within the renal medulla that contains part of the nephron
the portion of the kidney containing the minor calices, major calices, renal pelvis, and infundibula
a disease characterized by the buildup of fibrous tissue within the retroperitoneum; this mass may involve the abdominal aorta, IVC, ureters, sacrum
a large urinary stone that completely fills and takes the shape of the renal pelvis
the combination of a slow systolic upstroke and a decreased systolic velocity
transitional cell carcinoma
a malignant tumor of the urinary tract that is often found within the urinary bladder or within the renal pelvis
trigone of the urinary bladder
the area within the urinary bladder where the two ureteral orifices and urethral orifice are located
a systemic disorder that leads to the development of tumors within various organs
a pelvic abscess involving the uterine tubes and ovaries that is often caused by PID
an artifact noted as an increased color Doppler signal posterior to a kidney stone
a tubular structure that is a remnant of embryonic development, which extends from the umbilicus to the apex of the bladder
an abnormality in which the distal ureter projects into the urinary bladder
the junction of the ureter and renal pelvis
the junction of the ureter and urinary bladder
an inflammation of the urethra
a localized collection of urine
the retrograde flow of urine from the urinary bladder into the ureter
a radiographic examination that involves the assessment of the urinary bladder and distal ureter for urinary reflux and other abnormalities
von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
an inherited disorder characterized by tumors of the central nervous system and the development of cysts within the kidneys, renal cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytomas
a rare chronic form of pyelonephritis that is typically the result of a chronic obstructive process
acute pyelonephritis, UTI
what does bacteruria indicate?
what does pyuria indicate?
acute and chronic pyelonephritis, renal cell carcinoma, infarction, trauma, kidney stones
what does hematuria indicate?
masses, glomerulonephritis, infection, nephrotic syndrome, acute or chronic pyelonephritis, urinary calculi
what does proteinuria indicate?
what does an abnormal urine pH indicate?
renal failure or pyelonephritis
what does low specific gravity indicate?
what does high specific gravity indicate?
what does an elevated white blood cell count in urine indicate?
elevated BUN and creatinine, oliguria, hypertension, leukocytosis, hematuria, edema, hypovolemia
what are the clinical findings of acute renal failure?
normal kidneys, may appear more echogenic
what are the sonographic findings of acute renal failure?
diabetes mellitus, malaise, elevated BUN and creatinine, fatigue, hypertension, hyperkalemia
what are the clinical findings of chronic renal failure?
small, echogenic kidneys, loss of normal corticomedullary differentation, renal cysts
what are the sonographic findings of chronic renal failure?
what are the clinical findings of simple renal cysts?
3rd or 4th decade of life, decreased renal function, UTI, renal calculi, flank pain, hematuria, abdominal mass
what are the clinical findings of Autosomal Dominant polycystic kidney disease?
bilateral enlarged kidneys, numerous cortical renal cysts
what are the sonographic findings of Autosomal Dominant polycystic kidney disease?
clinical findings of renal failure
what are the clinical findings of Autosomal Recessive polycystic kidney disease?
bilateral enlarged echogenic kidneys, loss of corticomedullary differentation
what are the sonographic findings of Autosomal Recessive polycystic kidney disease?
what are the clinical findings of multicystic dysplastic renal disease?
unilateral cysts, hypertrophy of contralateral kidney
what are the sonographic findings of multicystic dysplastic renal disease?
clinical findings of chronic renal failure, history of hemodialysis
what are the clinical findings of acquired renal cystic disease?
kidneys are small first, then enlarge with numerous small cysts
what are the sonographic findings of acquired renal cystic disease?
symptoms of brain/eye tumors
what are the clinical findings of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome?
multiple renal cysts, pancreatic cysts, pheochromocytoma
what are the sonographic findings of on Hippel-Lindau syndrome?
epilepsy, skin lesions on the face
what are the clinical findings of Tuberous Sclerosis?
bilateral renal cysts, bilateral angiomyolipomas
what are the sonographic findings of Tuberous Sclerosis?
flank pain, bacteriuria, pyuria, leukocytosis, dysuria, urinary frequency
what are the clinical findings of acute pyelonephritis?
normal, renal enlargement, altered echotexture, compression of renal sinus
what are the sonographic findings of acute pyelonephritis?
pyuria, bacteruria, fever, flank pain, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of pyonephrosis?
hydronephrosis, pus and debris in collecting system
what are the sonographic findings of pyonephrosis?
symptoms of pyelonephritis, high fever, flank pain, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of renal abscesses?
complex mass with shadowing
what are the sonographic findings of renal abscesses?
diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised patient, fever, flank pain, leukocytosis
what are the clinical findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis?
gas or air within the renal parenchyma, dirty shadowing
what are the sonographic findigns of emphysematous pyelonephritis?
flank pain, bacteruria, pyuria, leukocytosis, dysuria, urinary frequency
what are the clinical findings of chronic pyelonephritis?
small, echogenic kidneys with lobulated borders
what are the sonographic findings of chronic pyelonephritis?
immunocompromised, diabetes mellitus, IV drug abuse, catheters, flank pain, fever, chills
what are the clinical findings of renal fungal disease?
fungal balls (hyperechoic, nonshadowing mobile structures)
what are the sonographic findings of renal fungal disease?
recent throat infection, smoky urine, hematuria, proteinuria, fever, hypertension, azotemia
what are the clinical findings of glomerulonephritis?
enlarged kidneys, prominent renal pyramids
what are the sonographic findings of acute glomerulonephritis?
small, echogenic kidneys
what are the sonographic findings of chronic glomerulonephritis?
dilation of the calices
dilation of the renal pelvis
dilation of the calices and renal pelvis
benign solid mass located within the adrenal glands
benign simple cysts located within the adrenal glands
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which controls the release of hormones by the adrenal gland
a syndrome caused by a functioning tumor within the adrenal cortex that produces excess amounts of aldosterone
syndrome in which patients have hypertension, excessive thirst, excessive urination, low levels of potassium in the blood
a syndrome that results from a pituitary or adrenal tumor that causes overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands
syndrome in which patients suffer from obesity, thinning arms and legs, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and severe fatigue
glands that release their hormones directly into the bloodstream
excessive hair growth in women in areas where hair growth is normally negligible
high levels of sodium in the blood
low levels of potassium in the blood
another name for the adrenal glands
abnormally rapid heart rate
what adrenal hormone is responsible for regulating blood pressure by controlling the amounts of sodium and water in the body?
what adrenal hormone has minimal impact on development of male characteristics
what adrenal hormone is responsible for glucose metabolism, blood pressure regulation, immune function, inflammatory response?
aldosterone, androgen, cortisol
what are the 3 hormones of the adrenal cortex?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
what are the hormones of the adrenal medulla?
what hormone accelerates heart rate, increasing blood pressure, opens airways in the lungs, narrows blood vessels in the skin and intestine to increase blood flow to major muscle groups
what hormone accelerates heart rate, increases blood pressure, contracts blood vessels
obesity, thinning arms and legs, hypertension, hirsutism, hyperglycemia, severe fatigue
what are the clinical indications of Cushing syndrome?
hypertension, excessive thirst, excessive urination, high levels of sodium, low levels of potassium
what are the clinical indication of Conn syndrome?
sign and symptoms of Cushing or Conn syndrome; may be asymptomatic
what are the clinical findings of adrenal adenomas?
solid, hypoechoic mass in the area of the adrenal gland
what are the sonographic findings of adrenal adenomas?
uncontrollable hypertension, headaches, tachycardia, tremors, anxiety, excessive sweating
what are the clinical findings of pheochromocytomas?
large, hyperechoic mass in the area of the adrenal gland
what are the sonographic findings of pheochromocytomas?
palpable abdominal mass, abdominal pain, bone pain
what are the clinical findings of neuroblastoma?
large, heterogeneous mass containing areas of calcification and hemorrhage; metastasis often present at the time of discovery
what are the sonographic findings of neuroblastoma?
abdominal mass, acute drop in hematocrit and blood pressue
what are the clinical findings of adrenal hemorrhage?
heterogeneous mass in the area of the adrenal gland
what are the sonographic findings of adrenal hemorrhage?
a disease characterized by the accumulation of plaque within the walls of arteries
a contained rupture of a blood vessel that is most likely secondary to the disruption of one or more layers of that vessel's walls
the residual channel of a vessel created by the accumulation of a clot within that vessel
shaped like a spindle; wider in the middle and tapering toward the ends
observation of the intimal layer of a vessel as a result of a dissection
high resistance flow
the flow pattern that results from small arteries or arterioles that are contracted, which produces an increase in the resistance to blood flow to the structure that is being supplied
low resistance flow
the flow pattern characterized by persistent forward flow throughout the cardiac cycle
a disorder of the connective tissue characterized by tall stature and aortic and mitral valve insufficiency
aneurysms caused by infection
a saclike dilation of a blood vessel
small bowel ischemia
a condition resulting in interruption or reduction of the blood supply to the small intestines
the enlargement of a vessel that involves all three layers of the wall
the true channel within a vessel
inflammation of the appendix
cancer originating in glandular tissue
a dense, calcified stone within the appendix
a disorder in which the immune system attacks normal tissue
masses of various ingested material that may cause an intestinal obstruction
an autoimmune disease characterized by periods of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
the proximal portion of the duodenum closest to the stomach
a stone that consists of feces
an abnormality in which fluid is allowed to reflux out of the stomach back into the esophagus
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
a defect in the relaxation of the pyloric sphincter that leads to the enlargement of the pyloric muscles and closure of the pyloric sphincter
the telescoping of one segment of bowel into another; most often the proximal segment of the bowel inserts into the distal segment
the proximal segment of the bowel with intussusception
the distal segment of the bowel with intussusception
a bezoar that consists of powdered milk
malrotation of the midgut
a situation in which the small bowel mesentery rotates around the SMA
a point halfway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the umbilicus; the area of pain and rebound tenderness in patients suffering from acute appendicitis
a situation in which bowel is physically blocked by something
a common congenital outpouching of the wall of the small intestine
a malignant form of cancer found most often on the skin
not containing bile
a situation in which bowel is blocked because of the lack of normal peristalsis of a bowel segment or segments AKA paralytic ileus
when the pyloric sphincter muscle is enlarged and palpable on physical examination of the abdomen
a bezoar that consists of vegetable matter
a temporary spasm and thickening of the pyloric sphincter that can replicate the sonographic appearance of pyloric stenosis
pain encountered after the removal of pressure
red currant jelly stool
feces that contains a mixture of mucus and blood; a common clinical finding in patients with intussuseption
a bezoar that consists of matted hair
a blind-ended tube that is connected to the cecum of the colon
a situation in which a loop of bowel twists upon itself
cystic adenomatoid malformation
a mass consisting of abnormal bronchial and lung tissue the develops within the fetal chest
an inherited bleeding disorder that inhibits the control of blood clotting
the replacement of normal air-filled alveoli with fluid, inflammation, blood, or neoplastic cells
free air within the chest outside of the lungs that can lead to lung collapse
a separate mass of nonfunctioning lung tissue with its own blood supply
a disease characterized by the buildup of fibrous tissue within the retroperitoneum; this mass may involve the aorta, IVC, ureters, and sacrum
a bloody tumor located within the retroperitoneum
the enlargement of the abdominal lymph nodes located within the abdomen
hematuria, renal colic, oliguria
what are the clinical findings of urolithiasis?
echogenic focus with shadowing, twinkle sign posterior to stone, possible hydronephrosis
what are the sonographic findings of urolithiasis?
hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, UTI, history of urinary calculi
what are the clinical findings of nephrocalcinosis?
echogenic renal pyramids, echogenic foci within the cortex
what are the sonographic findings of nephrocalcinosis?
what are the clinical findings of renal adenomas?
hyperechoic, vascular mass with internal calcifications
what are the sonographic findings of renal adenomas?
what are the clinical findings of oncocytoma?
varying echogenicity, may have central scar
what are the sonographic findings of oncocytomas?
what are the clinical findings of angiomyolipoma?
solid, hyperechoic mass
what are the sonographic findings of angiomyolipomas?
what are the clinical findings of renal hemangiomas?
small, hyperechoic mass
what are the sonographic findings of renal hemangiomas?
what are the clinical findings of renal lipoma?
what are the sonographic findings of renal lipoma?
anorexia, flank pain, gross hematuria, hypertension, palpable mass, smoker, weight loss
what are the clinical findings of renal cell carcinoma?
hypoechoic or isoechoic solid mass in the kidney
what are the sonographic findings of renal cell carcinoma?
what are the clinical findings of transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney
hypoechoic or isoechoic mass within the renal sinus
what are the sonographic findings of transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney?
lung or breast
what are the common primary cancers of renal metastasis?
hematuria, fever, weight loss
what are the clinical findings of metastasis of the kidney?
bilateral hypoechoic or hyperechoic masses
what are the sonographic findings of metastasis of the kidney?
smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes
what are the clinical findings of renal artery stenosis?
thickening and calcification of the renal artery, renal/aorta ratio >3.5, tardus parvus
what are the sonographic findings of renal artery stenosis?
what are the clinical findings of renal vein thrombosis?
heterogeneous renal echotexture, enlarged renal vein, absent renal vein Doppler signals
what are the sonographic findings of renal vein thrombosis?
pulsatile abdominal mass, abdominal bruit, back pain, abdominal pain, lower extremity pain
what are the clinical findings of AAA?
Diameter of abdominal aorta measure >3cm, thrombus within the lumen of the aorta
what are the sonographic findings of AAA?
intense chest pain, hypertension, abdominal pain, lower back pain, neurologic systems
what are the clinical findings of an aortic dissection?
intimal flap may be noted within the aortic lumen
what are the sonographic findings of an aortic dissection?
decreased hematocrit, hypotension, pulsatile abdominal mass, abdominal bruit, back pain, abdominal pain, lower extremity pain
what are the clinical findings of an aortic rupture?
abdominal aneurysm with an adjacent hematoma
what are the sonographic findings of an aortic rupture?
recent catherterization, surgical procedure, or trauma; pulsatile mass in the area of the puncture location
what are the clinical findings of a pseudoaneurysm?
perivascular hematoma containing swirling blood an has a neck connecting it to the vessel
what are the sonographic findings of a pseudoaneurysm?
brachial cleft cysts
benign congenital neck cysts found most often near the angle of the mandible
enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes
the hypofunctioning thyroid nodules seen on a nuclear medicine study that have a malignant potential
the fluid produced by the thyroid that contains thyroid hormones
an enlarged, hyperplastic thyroid gland
the most common cause of hyperthyroidism that produces bulging eyes, heat intolerance, nervousness, weight loss, hair loss
the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States
the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules seen on a nuclear medicine study that are almost always benign
a condition that results from the overproduction of thyroid hormones
the condition that results from the underproduction of thyroid hormones
the most common form of thyroid cancer
a normal variant of the thyroid gland in which there is a superior extension of the isthmus
nuclear medicine in which a radiopharmaceutical is used to examine the thyroid gland
thyroglossal duct cysts
benign congenital cysts located within the midline of the neck superior to the thyroid gland and near the hyoid bone
the sonographic appearance of hypervascularity demonstrated with color Doppler imaging of the thyroid gland
the embryonic duct that is located from the base of the tongue to the midportion of the anterior neck
anterior to each lobe
what is the location of the strap muscles?
lateral to each lobe
what is the location of the sternocleidomastoid muscles?
posterior to each lobe
what is the location of the longus colli muscles?
lateral to each lobe
what is the location of the carotid artery in relation to the thyroid?
left side posterior to the trachea and thyroid
what is the location of the esophagus in relation to the thyroid?
aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
what is the function of thyroxine (T4)?
aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
what is the function of triiodothyronine (T3)?
removing calcium from the blood for storage in the bones
what is the function of calcitonin?
heterogeneous echotexture, may contain multiple nodules with cystic and solid components
what is the sonographic findings of a goiter?
bulging eyes, heat intolerance, nervousness, weight loss, hair loss
what are the clinical findings of graves disease?
enlarged gland, heterogeneous or diffusely hypoechoic echotexture, thyroid inferno
what are the sonographic findings of graves disease?
depression, increased cold sensitivity, elevated blood cholesterol levels, slight weight gain may occur
what are the clinical findings of hashimoto thyroiditis?
mild enlargement of the thyroid gland, heterogeneous echotexture, hypervascular gland
what are the sonographic findings of hashimoto thyroiditis?
elevated serum calcium, elevated PTH
what are the clinical findings of a parathyroid adenoma?
hypoechoic mass adjacent to the thyroid
what are the sonographic findings of a parathyroid adenoma?
>1cm, rounded shape, loss of the echogenic hilum, calcifications
what are the sonographic findings of abnormal lymph nodes?
a protein produced by the fetal yolk sac, fetal gastrointestinal tract, and the fetal liver; may also be produced by some malignant tumors
the testicular appendage located at the head of the epididymis
the testicular appendage located between the head of the epididymis and the superior pole of the testis
the testicular appendage located between the body and tail of the epididymis
the condition in which the patient lacks the normal posterior fixation of the testis and epididymis to the scrotal wall
benign prostatic hypertrophy
the benign enlargement of the prostate gland
"blue dot" sign
the appearance of a torsed testicular appendage that can be observed as a blue dot just under the skin surface
gland that secretes preejaculate fluid that lubricates the penile urethra prior to ejaculation
a STD that can lead to inflammatory disease in both sexes
what is another name for the bulbourethral gland?
the muscle that raises the testicle
the condition of having an undescended testis or testicles
ductus vas deferens
the tube that connects the epididymis to the seminal vesicles
a cyst located anywhere along the length of the epididymis
a coiled structure that is attached to the testicle and the posterior scrotal wall that is responsible for storing sperm
inflammation of all or part of the epididymis
inflammation of the epididymis and testis
germ cell tumor
a type of neoplasm derived from germ cells of the gonads; may be found outside of the reproductive tract
a collection of blood within the scrotum
human chorionic gonadotropin
hormone produced by the trophoblastic cells of the early placenta; may also by used as a tumor marker in nongravid patients and males
a fluid collection within the scrotum; most often found between the 2 laters of the tunica vaginalis
from an unknown origin
an opening in the lower anterior abdominal wall
the protrusion of bowel or abdominal contents into the inguinal canal
a condition in which a male has an extra X chromosome; characteristic features include small testicles, infertility, gynecomastia, long legs, and abnormally low intelligence
the structure that separates the scrotum into two compartments externally
the structure that is formed by the tunica albuginea and contains the rete testis
the surgery that moves an undescended testis into the scrotum
inflammation of the testis or testicles
the group of veins in the scrotum
the largest zone of the prostate and most common location for prostatic cancer
a protein produced by the prostate gland
inflammation of the prostate gland
a pus collection within the scrotum
a network of tubules that carry sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis
an extratesticular calculi
a fluid that contains secretions from the testicles, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland
small glands located superior to the prostate gland and posterior to the base of the bladder, which secrete an alkaline-based fluid
the location of spermatogenesis within the testicles
the most common malignant neoplasm of the testicles
the structure that travels through the inguinal canal and contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph nodes, and the cremaster muscle
a common cyst found often in the head of the epididymis that is composed of nonviable sperm, fat, cellular debris, and lymphocytes
the creation of sperm
a condition that results from the arterial blood supply to the testicle being cut off secondary to the twisting of the testicular axis
the prostatic zone that is the most common site for benign prostatic hypertrophy
the dense connective tissue that is closely applied to each testicle
tunica albuginea cyst
cysts located within the tunica albuginea surrounding the testis
the structure that separates the scrotum into two separate compartments internally