Bio Final - Nervous System

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What makes up the central nervous system.

Brain and Spinal cord

What makes up the peripheral nervous system

Nerves and sensory organs

Cells that serve as the functional units of the nervous system

neurons - they are the nerve cells.

Three basic parts of the neuron

cell body, dendrites, and axoms

what do dendrites do

they receive and relay the nerve impulses TOWARD the cell body.

Which art of the neuron contains the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles

cell body

What do the axoms do

they carry impulses AWAY from the cell body.

longest portion of neuron

axoms

axoms of neurons are covered by lipid layer called a

myelin sheath

special cells that produce the myelin sheath

schwann's cells

Neurons do not touch each other. Junction b/ two neurons that keeps them from touching is...

synapse

space b/ axon terminal and neuron is called

synaptic cleft

electrochemical pulse that moves along the membrane of the neuron

nerve impulse

The nerve impulse must cross synaptic cleft by using what...

neurotransmitters

3 types of neurons

sensory, interneurons, motor neurons

involuntary response to a stimulus...

reflex

Explain reflex arc

Sensory neuron in skin is stimulated and impulse is carried to central nervous system. There sensory neuron forms synapse w one or more interneurons. Interneuron passes impulse on to motor neuron which carries impulse to the muscle and a body movement happens. At same time, interneurons send impulse to barin, telling of the stimulus it received. Muscle usually reacts before brain gets the message. So reflex arcs are involuntary.

Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective coverings called

meninges

three type of protective coverings are...

dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater.

describe dura mater

thick tough membrane containing blood vessels

describe arachnoid

thin, delicate cobweb like membrane

describe pia mater

thin membrane on surface of spinal cord and brain. contains small blood vessels.

fluid b/ pia mater and arachnoid membrane is called

cerebrospinal fluid

What does the cerebrospinal fluid do

Fills spaces around brain and spinal cord. it nourishes and cushions.

Brain weighs...

3 pounds

Brain receives how much blood pumped to the heart

20%

Color of brain

pinkish gray

Cell bodies and dendrites make up which matter of the brain...white or gray matter

gray matter

axons and myelin sheaths make up which matter of the brain...white or gray matter

white matter. They are the deeper tissues

7 regions of the brain

cerebum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum

How many hemispheres does cerebrum have

two

ridged or raised areas of the brain

gyri

deeper depressed areas of brain are called

fissures

which part of brain is responsible for conscious activities

cerebral cortex (gray matter)

4 lobes of brain -

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

relay center b/ spinal cord and brain

medulla oblongata. It is continuous w/ spinal cord.

part of brain that contains respiratory and cardiac control centers and controls some reflexes

medulla oblongata

2nd largest part of brain that has two hemispheres

cerebellum

Job of cerebellum

regulates activites stimulated by rest of brain

Does cerebellum work at conscious or unconscious level

unconscious

Part of brain (gray matter) that receives sensations and decides which are important enough to send on

thalamus

part of brain that helps person to stay awake and alert

thalamus

part of brain that controls involuntary activities like body temperature, appetite,

hypothalamus

part of brain b/ thalamus and pons that controls body movements, vision and hearing reflexes

midbrain

part of brain b/ medulla and midbrain that carries info from one side of brain to other.

pons

part of brain that controls facial expressions, chewing, eyeball movement

pons

how many pair of spinal nerves do we have

31 pairs

Spinal cord Gray matter is what shape...contains interneurons and cell bodies of sensory and motor neurons

Butterfly

White matter of spinal cord contains...

axons that are arranged vertically

which part of peripheral nervous system carries info FROM CNS to rest of body.

motor division

which part of peripheral nervous system carries info from body TO cns.

sensory division

Do self quiz 23A

...

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