These are major sources of energy and include sugar and starches.
Nitrogen- containing compounds made up of chains of amino acids. They can compose enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural components.
Fats and oils. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and composed of glycerol and fatty acids. Unsaturated.
Direct the instruction of proteins. Genetic information an organism receives from its parents. Two types: DNA and RNA.
Captures solar energy for photosynthesis.
Package, distribute products.
Digests excess products and food particles.
Transform energy through respiration. (aerobic) powerhouse of the cell.
Contains DNA which controls cellular activities.
Produce proteins (protein synthesis)
protects the cell and controls transport; maintains homeostasis.
(only in plants) it protects and encloses the cell.
Site of chemical reactions.
Smooth: lipid production
Rough: Contains ribosomes
Provides internal structure.
Organism that exists as a singular, independent cell.
Organism that exists as specialized groups of cells.
No membrane bound organelles and are found in bacteria and blue- green bacteria.
Contain a clearly defined nucleus enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists.
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organism.
What is the order of cell specialization?
diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion
What are three types of passive transport?
Movement of substances across the membrane without the use of the cell's energy (with the concentration gradient)
Movement of substances across the plasma membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Diffusion of water across the plasma membrane from high concentration to areas of lower concentration.
A carrier molecule embedded in the plasma membrane transports a substance across the plasma membrane following the high-to-low concentration gradient.
endocytosis and exocytosis
What are two types of active transport?
Movement of substances across the plasma membrane that requires the use of the cell's energy and carrier molecules; substances are moving from and area of low concentration to high concentration.
large particles are brought into the cell
Large particles leave the cell
internal equilibrium; the plasma membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell; a selectively permeable membrane only allows certain substances to pass through. Body temperature, respiration, nutritional balance, etc.
Water moves in; cells burst
Water moves out; cells shrivel
No net movement; cell maintains equilibrium
Chemical bonds are formed and broken within living things creating chemical reactions that impact the ability to maintain life and carry out life functions.
Food molecules are converted to energy. The first stage is glycosis and is anearobic (no oxygen is required); the next two stages are called the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain and are aerobic (oxygen is required).
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY (36 ATP)
What is the cellular respiration formula?
Plant cells capture energy from the Sun and convert it into food.
6H2O+ 6CO2 +ENERGY (from sunlight) -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
A molecule that stores and releases the energy in its bonds when the cell needs it.
ATP <-> ADP + P + Energy
What is the formula for ATP?
When cells are not provided with oxygen in a timely manner, this process occurs to continue producing ATP until oxygen is available again; glucose is broken down.
Lactic Acid and Alcoholic
What are the two types of fermentation?
Glucose -> Lactic acid + 2ATP
What is the lactic acid formula?
Glucose -> CO2 + Alcohol + 2ATP
What is the alcoholic fermentation formula?
What is an example of alcoholic fermentation?
What is an example of lactic acid fermentation?
This requires the presence of oxygen.
This does not require oxygen.
Special proteins that regular nearly every biochemical reaction in the cell. They are reusable, provide energy to cells, build new cells, aid in digestion, break down complex molecules, and are catalysts.
phosphate groups, sugar, nitrogenous base.
What are nucleic acids composed of?
Double stranded (twisted helix)
Adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine
What are the nitrogenous bases of DNA?
G -> C, A -> T
What is it when DNA unravels and each strand makes a new exact copy so that when mitosis takes place, each cell has the exact copy of DNA.
Adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine
What are the nitrogenous bases of RNA?
G -> C, A -> U
mRNA is made from one strand of DNA, carries messages to ribosomes.
mRNA translated into a protein at the ribosomes; tRNA transfers amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes.
A single parent produces one or more identical offspring by dividing into two cells- mitosis (protists, arthropods, bacteria by binary fission, fungi, plants); produces large numbers of offspring. The offpsring is genetically identical.
Haploid sperm from father fertilizes haploid egg form mother to make a diploid zygote that develops into a multicellular organism through mitosis. Results in genetic variation.
Process of copying and dividing the entire cell.
What consists of interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis.
Longest part of the cell cycle.
Division of the cell
Duplicated chromosomes and spindle fibers appear.
Duplicated chromosomes line up randomly in center of cell between spindle fibers
Duplicated chromosomes pulled to opposite ends of cell.
Nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes at each end of the cell; spindle fibers disappear; chromosomes disperse.
Division of plasma membrane; two daughter cells result with exact genetic information.
Two daughter cells and 46 chromosomes
What are the results of mitosis?
Consists of two cell divisions, but only one chromosome replication. Occurs only in sex cells to produce gametes.
Four daughter cells with only 23 chromosomes
What are the results of meiosis?
Who experimented with sweet pea plants in 1800s?
Characteristics an individual receives from its parents.
Carries instructions responsible for expression of traits.
Two alleles of a pair are identical. BB or bb.
Two alleles of a pair are different. Bb.
Controlling allele; designated with a capital letter.
Hidden allele; designated with lower- case letters.
Genetic makeup of an organism (represented by letters)
Physical appearance of an organism (description of the letters)
Cross involving one trait
Cross involving two traits.
Graphic organizer used to show the probable result of a genetic cross.
Graphic organizer o map genetic traits between generations.
Chart of metaphase chromosome pairs to study chromosome number/ dieases.
Mating of an individual of unknown genotype with an individual of known genotype; can help determine the uknown genotype of the parent.
Law of segregation
Gene pairs separate when gametes are formed. Each gamete has only one allele of each gene pair.
Law of Independent Assortment
Different pairs of genes separate independently of each other when gametes are formed.
23rd pair of chromosomes; Males = XY, Females = XX
Sex linked traits
traits associated with particular sexes. Colorblindness, baldness, hemophilia.
Genes are linked on chromosomes genes on same chromosome are inherited together.
Presence of more than two alleles for a trait. (eye color)
One trait ocntrolled by many genes (hair color, skin color); genes may be on the same or different chromosomes.
phenotypes of a homozygous parent are produced in heterozygous offspring so that both alleles are equally expressed. Sickle cell anemia.
Phenotype of a heterozygous intermediate between the two homozgous parents; neither allel is dominant, but combine to display a new trait. Example: red flower + white flower = pink flower
Observed trait is controlled by a homozygous genotype. Dominant disease- huntingtons
Recessive- cystic fibrosis
Genes from one chromosome are exchanged with genes from another chromosome.
During meiosis, homologous pairs of chromosomes dont separate. Results in half the sex cells having an extra chromosome and the other half having one less chromosome.
Influenced by crossing over, mutations, genetic engineering, random assortment of genes, natural selection. Its controlled by sexual reproduction.
Contains four boxes; a cross between two heterozygous individuals reveal a 1: 2: 1 genotype ration.
Contains sixteen boxes; reveals two traits for both parents.
DNA fingerprinting, human genome project, etc.
Idea that living organisms came only from other living organisms.
Mistaken idea that life can arise from nonliving things; sometimes called abiogenesis.
Performed controlled experiments that tested spontaneous generation of maggots form decaying meat.
Performed controlled experiments that tested spontaneous genertaion of microorganisms in nutrient broth.
Large, ordered structure, enclosed by a membrane that carries out some life activities such as growth and division.
Proposed the theory of evolution.
Process by which organisms that are best suited to environment survive and pass genetic traits on to offspring.
Organisms with the most suited traits will survive.
Change in a species over time.
Evolution that occurs within the species level
Evolution that occurs between different species.
two species evolve similarly.
A group of species evolve differently.
A group of species adapt separately to environments.
Formation of new species
Physical barrier divides a population, results in individuals that cannot mate, leads to a new species.
Genetic mutation or behavioral change in prevent mating.
Process in understanding how organisms are related and how they are different.
Branch of biology that studies grouping and naming of organisms.
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
What are the six kingdoms?
A tool used to identify organisms by using pairs of contrasting characteristics.
Virus attached to host cell and injects its nucleic acid into host; host immediately responds.
Host infected but does not immediately die and respond.
Composed of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.
Anchor, absorb water, store food
Support and transport the plant
Photosynthesis occurs here and they produce food for the plant
Transports nutrients, fluids, Gases.
Basic organs: Heart, veins, arteries.
Breaks down food into essential nutrients.
Basic organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines.
Controls body functions through hormones.
Basic organs: Glands which secrete hormones.
Removes cellular wastes from the blood.
Basic organs: bladder, kidneys, urethra
Protects the body against invading organisms
Basic organs: white blood cells.
Protects the body by forming the body's outer layer.
Basic Organs: Skin, hair, nails
Moves the body with the help of the skeletal system
Basic organs: Muscles
Supports the body internally
Basic organs: bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons.
Coordinates sensory input with motor output
Basic organs: Brain, spinal cord, sense organs
Provides a means of producing offspring
Basic organs: Testes, ovaries, and uterus
Controls the exchange of gases
Basic organs: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Production of offspring by an organism; a characteristic of all living things (can be sexual or asexual); exists for the continuation of the species, not the individual.
Increase in the amount of living material and formation of new structures in an organism; a characteristic of all living things. Ex: getting bigger, growing muscle, longer bones.
All the changes that take place during the life of an organism; a characteristic of all living things. Ex: Infancy, youth, puberty, adulthood, death.
Are living organisms, usually unicellular bacteria, that can be seen with a microscope.
Include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites which cause disease when our immune system can't fight them.
Microscopic; single celled.
Cannot reproduce on its own (has to invade a host cell)
Yeasts, molds, mushrooms
Organisms such as a worm or single celled animal protozoan that survive by living inside another organism.
Organic substances synthesized by microoranisms or at a lab used to treat infectious diseases or to prevent them.
Keeping a clean environment that limits exposure to infected bodily fluids, decomposing material, or infected people will prevent the spread of infection.
Animals response to a stimulus
Instinct; influenced by genes
training a pet to respond to a specific name
Organisms defend an area to keep out other organisms.
a knee jerk
Response to a directional stimulus
A pattern of behavior that is about 24 hours in length.
Sleeping, eating, brainwave, activity.etc.
Structural adaptation that allows one species to resemble another species; may provide protection from predators.
Structural adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings; allows a species to avoid detection.
movements from place to place
Individuals leave a population and decrease population.
individuals move into a population and increase the population.
State of reduced metabolism that occurs in animals living in conditions of intense heat.
Production of offspring for the survival of the species; can be seasonally scheduled.
Growth response that result in curvature of plant organs towards or away from stimuli due to different rates of elongation.
Response to gravity; roots have positive geotropism; stems have negative geotropism
Response to light (leaves)
Response to water (roots)
Response to touch (venus flytrap)
Response to chemicals
Group of organisms that can interbreed
Groups of interacting populations
Place where an organism lives
Units of single species
Groups of interacting communities
Organisms role within its habitat
Permanent, close association between one or more organisms of different species.
A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited.
Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another, usually another species.
Mechanism for change in populations; occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce, and pass their variations to the next generation, "survival of the fittest".
(behavioral or physiological) Evolution of a structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring.
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts tht existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
any change or random error in a DNA sequence
Variety of life in an area; usually measured as the number of species that live in an area.
Water is recycled through evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, groundwater, aquifers, respiration, transpiration, excretion, decomposition.
Producers take in nitrogen compounds in soil and pass to consumers that consume the producers; decomposers (bacteria) break down nitrogen compounds and release nitrogen gas to air or usable nitrogen for the soil.
Carbon is recycled through respiration, photosynthesis, fuel combustion, decomposition; carbon can be atmosphere or dissolved or can be found in organic compounds within the body.
Tropical rain forest
Warm, moist, parrots, >225 precipitation and temperatures are about 25 degrees Celsius.
Hot, dry, rattlesnakes, >30 degrees Celsius
Deciduous, bears, 15-18 degrees celsius and about 125 centimeters.
Coniferous, borders tundra
Cold, permafrost, etc.
Primary and secondary
What are the two types of succession?
Colonization on barren land (rock)
Already used land on soil