Bioethics Final Review

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deductive

may be invalid; sound or unsound

inductive

technically always invalid

inductive

uses generalizations and inferences

deductive

two or more persons are required to drive in the diamond lane. you don't have two or more persons. therefore you may not drive in the diamond lane

inductive

involves going from specific cases to a broad or general conclusion

inductive

the conclusion is not guaranteed, one can argue against it by finding counterexamples

deductive

the conclusion is guaranteed...the premises entail the conclusion so it has to be true

inductive

all the tigers observed in a particular region have yellow black stripped, therefore all the tigers native to this region have yellow stripes

deductive

everyday i go to work. this journey from my home to my office takes one hour. my office starts at eight o'clock in the morning. so, if I leave my home at seven o'clock in the morning, I will reach my office in time

inductive

every time you eat shrimp, you get cramps, therefore you get cramps because you eat shrimp

ethics

a branch of philosophy that studies theories and arguments and why the actions are right or wrong or the state of affairs are good or bad

argument

the set of premises that help convince us that a conclusion is true

generalization

an attempt to identity the common thread or general rule, that explains why an action is right or wrong

utilitarianism

actions are judges right or wrong solely by their consequences

divine command theory

moral standards depend on god

ethical relativism

no principles are universally valid

deontology

emphasis is on moral rules and duty

virtue ethics

morals are internal

no, some laws are legal but not moral. some laws are not moral, but legal

are morality and the law the same thing?

some people's moral beliefs differ from what their religion teaches (ex: susie is catholic and pro choice)

are morality and religion the same thing?

3, 4, 2, 1

put the following statements in a natural flow. if we can prevent something very bad from happening by doing x, and if we can do x without sacrificing something of comparable moral worth, then we have a moral duty to do x. therefore, we have a moral duty to send substantial amounts of money for famine relief. by sending substantial amounts of money for famine relief, we can prevent death by starvation without sacrificing anything of comparable moral worth. death by starvation is a very bad thing

Either Elizabeth owns a Honda or she owns a Saturn.
Elizabeth does not own a Honda.
Therefore, Elizabeth owns a Saturn.

compose a valid and sound argument

valid

all teachers are mean, ms. amy is a teacher; therefore, ms. amy is mean

valid

all whales are fish, and all fish are cold-blooded; therefore, all whales are cold-blooded

invalid

if susie sion is a high school graduate, then susie is a girl. susie is not a sion high school graduate, so she is not a girl

invalid

ethics is hard, I don't like to do hard things; therefore, I will not do ethics

premise=genetic-harm
conclusion=therefore-engineering

underline premise and circle conclusion: genetic engineering is when you manipulate the dna of an organism. when this is done, it is possible that the dna may be damaged and it could cause the organism great harm; therefore, we should take precaution whenever doing genetic engineering

premises=transgenic-engineered
conclusion=transgenic-crops

underline premise and circle conclusion: transgenic crops are crops that have been genetically engineered. transgenic crops could possibly cause harm to the environment because they are "unnatural: and could end up depleting our "natural" crops.

premise=if-trees
conclusion=therefore-paper

underline premise and circle conclusion:if we waste paper, we are wasting trees. trees are a valuable resource; therefore, we should not waste paper.

premise=genetic-child
conclusion=therefore-technology

underline premise and circle conclusion: genetic screening is a way to identify is a child has a genetic disease before they are born. being able to tell if a child has a disease will allow the parents to best prepare for their new child. therefore, genetic screening is a beneficial technology.

incorrect, use natural order (therefore, cloning is morally wrong)

correct or incorrect? cloning reduces individuality. cloning is the process where an organisms' dna can be replicates and turned into a new organism. therefore, cloning is morally wrong. reducing individuality is morally wrong.

incorrect, using a premise that isn't general (feral)

correct or incorrect? using snare traps to kill the feral pigs will hurt them. so it is wrong to use snare traps to kill feral pigs.

incorrect, use consistent terms (transgenics)

correct or incorrect? genetic engineering is the process in which an organisms' genetic material is manipulated in some way. gene manipulation can be a very dangerous process. when we transfer genes between species, we may cause damage that cannot be repaired. transgenics is therefore not a good thing.

incorrect use reliable premise (first sentence)

correct or incorrect? we will never have too our our math skills in the real world, not even simple addition. therefore, i will not even attempt to learn math...its pointless.

invalid, unsound

some cats are mammals, all mammals are warm-blooded; therefore, all cats are warm-blooded

valid, unsound

all roses are red, my boyfriend gave me a rose; so my boyfriend must have given me a red rose

valid, sound

all cats are mammals, all mammals are warm-blooded;therefore, cats are warm-blooded

false 22

twenty three chromosome pairs in a human karyotype are similar in size and shape. in a human male

true

in a human karyotype, forty-four of the chromosomes are autosomes

False; Sperm

In humans, the mother determines the sex of the offspring.

False; Diploid number is 32

f an organism has 16 chromosomes in each of its egg cells, the organism's diploid number is 8.

n

The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol

xxx

Which of the following combination's of sex chromosomes represents a female?

meiosis

Gametes are produced by the process of

Only during cell division (Mitosis)

When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?

Haploid cells

Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of

Each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell's DNA.

Which of the following happens when a cell divides?

46

How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype?

6

If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is

4 chromosomes

During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing

replication

DNA is copied during a process called

one x chromosome

Human females produce egg cells that have

GATCCA

During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with the bases

one allele for each gene

Gametes have

is located in the nucleus

in eukaryote's, dna

adenine molecules in dna is about equal to the percentage of thymine molecules

because of base pairing in dna, the percentage of

one x chromosome and one y chromosome

in humans a male has

each with one new strand and one original strand

dna replication results in two dna molecules

double helix

The Watson and Crick model of DNA is a ____, in which two strands are wound around each other.

alleles

The different forms of a gene are called

half

An organism's gametes have ____ the number of chromosomes found in the organism's body cells.

2 sets

How many sets of chromosomes are in a diploid cell?

if we didn't have meiosis the chromosomes would double each time

Explain what the effect would be if the gametes of a species had the same number of chromosomes as the species' body cells.

the chromosomes go from 46 diploid to haploid and are reduced by half

What happens to the number of chromosomes per cell during meiosis?

chromosomes with the same size, shape, and location, but have different alleles

Define homologous chromosomes.

false

T/F:During DNA replication, only one strand of DNA serves as template

false

T/F:Genes determine a person's eye color by coding for nitrogenous bases that affect eye color.

false

T/F:If a nucleic acid contains uracil, it is DNA

false

T/F:A codon consists of four nucleotides.

true

T/F:DNA codes for DNA polymerase.

false

T/F:The anticodon AGA is complentary to the codon TCT.

true

T/F: Frameshift mutations cause greater damage to proteins than other types of mutations.

true

T/F: Insertions and substitutions usually cause frameshift mutations

true

T/F: The human genome project determined the nucleotide sequence for all three billion base pairs in the human genome

false

T/F: Before the human genome project, it was thought that there were only 30,000 genes in the human genome; now because of the HGP we know that there are over 100,000 genes

proteins

Genes contain instructions for assembling

ribose

RNA contains the sugar

uracil

Unlike DNA, RNA contains

3

How many main types of RNA are there?

phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine

Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA

Messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA

Which type(s) of RNA is (are) involved in protein synthesis?

rna molecules

What is produced during transcription?

3

How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?

The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.

What happens during the process of translation?

amino acids

The order of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of___ in proteins.

anticodon

The ____ of a tRNA molecule determines the type of amino acid that bonds with tRNA.

mutation

A change in a DNA seqence is called

a substitution

A DNA nucleotide sequence has changed from GACCTTCG to GACGTTCG which type of mutation has occurred?

an insertion

A DNA sequence has changed from ACGCGA to ACCGCGA, which type of mutation has occurred?

frameshift

A mutation that causes all of the amino acids after the mutation to change is called a

one

How many amino acids will change from a typical subsitution mutation?

denaturation

A change in the natural conformation of a protein due to changes in temperature or pH is called?

conformation

The shape of a protein is called its

amino acid sequence

The primary structure of a protein is its

exons

The coding segments of a gene are called

amino acid sequence

A proteins conformation is determined by its

False; same not different

The fact that human genes inserted into bacteria produce proteins shows that the basic mechanisms of gene expression are different in bacteria and humans

False; Survive

Bacterial cells that have been transformed with a plasmid that carries a genetic marker for resistence to the antibiotic tetracycline will not survive in a culture treated with tetracycline.

False; same not different

To produce a recombinant plasmid, the plasmid and the foreign DNA are cute with a different restriction enzyme.

true

Scientists use genetic markers to determine which cells have been successfully transformed

transformed bacterium

Which of the following includes all the others?

produce a natural insecticide

bt crops have an additional gene that allows them to

genetic marker

A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that dont is called a (an)

a bacterium takes in a plasmid

During transformation,

a gene for round-up resistance

round up ready crops contain

Genetic Engineering

The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms is called

bacteria

plasmids are naturally found in some

protein

A transgenic organism that has extra copies of a gene produces more of the___ that is coded for by that gene.

Bacteria reproduce to create many offspring that will also produce insulin

Why do transgenic bacteria that have the gene for human insulin produce insulin in great abundance?

Germline gene therapy (or germline engineering)

Attempts to correct genetic defects in the sperm, the egg, or a very early embryo would be classified as

transformation

A recombinant plasmid gets inside a bacterial cell by

genetic engineering

What kind of techniques do scientists use to make transgenic organisms?

Contain genes from a foreign species, are genetically engineered, have recombinant DNA

Transgenic animals are animals that

A transgenic plant, a goat that produces human proteins, a cow with recombinant dna

Which of the following is a GMO

The effects are multigenerational and it could alter human evolution

Many ethicist argue that gemline genetic modifications may be more ethically problematic than other forms of genetic modification because

Transgenic bacteria can produce human proteins in large amounts.

What is adavantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins?

Recombinant DNA

A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is known as

All organisms use genes in the same way, gene expression is the same in all organisms, the same insulin gene is found in both humans and transgenic bacteria

Why does the human insulin gene produce the same protein in humans and in transgenic bacteria?

The penecillin will kill the bacteria that were transformed.

Suppose bacterial culture were mixed with recombinant plasmids containing a gene for resistance to penicillin. The bacterial culture was then treated with penicillin.Which of the following statements is NOT true?

a type of bacteria

bt crops contain a gene from

a gene for antibiotic resistance

which of the following is often used as a genetic marker in plasmids

a virus

Which of the following is most commonly used as a vector in gene therapy

germline genetic engineering

Which of the following could be seen as a possible eugenics movement?

gene therapy

the introduction of healthy, therapeutic genes in attempts to correct a genetic disease or disorder is

spider milk

transgenic goats have been produced that have the ability to produce

Somatic cell gene therapy

A SCIDS (severe combined immunodeficiency disorder) patient has recently made a decision to participate in a clinical research trial in which he will receive a therapeutic gene in attemps to regain immune funtion. This is an example of

3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4

put the following events in order: dna ligase seals sticky ends (seals sugar phosphate backbone of recombinant plasmid). restriction enzyme is used to cut out the human insulin gene & to cut open plasmid. sticky ends are attracted to one another, nitrogen bases of sticky ends form H bonds. isolate the insulin. asexual reproduction. transformation occurs

GMO

genetically modified organism

PGD

pre-implanation genetic diagnosis

gamete

sperm & egg; haploid sex cells

diploid

having a 2 full sets of chromosomes; contains homologous pairs of chromosomes. In humans 2N = 46

haploid

having half the number of chromosomes of the diploid, somatic cells. In humans N = 23

chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus (eukaryotes only); contains the genetic material (DNA) that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.

autosome

chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

mutation

change in a DNA sequence. Could be inherited from parents DNA (for examle, a mutated gene that causes a genetic disease) or caused by chemicals known as mutagens (found in pollution, cigarette smoke, etc.) or could be a result of errors in DNA replication.

genome

the sum total of all of the genes in a given species.

enzyme

a type of protein whose function is to control chemical reactions in the body.

amino acid

one of 20 naturally occuring molecules which are put together in a specific order to make a specific protein. The order of this in a protein determines the shape the protein
will take, the proteins shape determine what function the protein will have. A mishaped protein will
not function (main cause of genetic disease).

protein

a type of macromolecule that has several functions in the body (see notes), are made of amino acids strung together in a specific order which is specified by DNA.

gene

the basic physical unit of hereditary

karyotype

the chromosomes of a cell

sex chromosome

a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual

meiosis

coverts diploid cells into haploids; occurs in the ovaries and testes

mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

recombinant

new combinations of genetic material

gene locus

the specific place on the chromosome where the gene is located

somatic cell

a diploid body cell (any cell in the body except a gamete)

eugenics

study or belief of improving the qualities of human species or human population

transformation

occurs when bacteria exchange plasmids

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