Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

anomaly

a rare exception

assess

to evaluate

confuse...with...

to fail to distinguish between...and...

counterproductive

refers to an action that achieves an effect that is opposite to the one intended

drawback

deduction

effect

result

inference

deduction

notwishstanding

despite

overwhelming

extremely large

paradox

an apparent condition

prerequisite

a necessary condition

principle

a general rule that can be applied to specific cases

presuppose

to assume

proposal

recommendation

rejoinder

rebuttal

some

at least one

subsidiary condition

an argument component that functions as both a conclusion and a premise

temporal

pertaining to time

unqualified approval

complete support

warrant

to justify

which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies? (2, 2s or 2n)

2n

the argument assumes that? (2, 2s or 2n)

2n

the conclusion drawn above is properly drawn if (2, 2s or 2n)

2s

which one the following, if true, most helps to justify the conclusion drawn above? (2, 2s or 2n)

2

circular reasoning

restating the premise rather than giving a reason for holding that premise

a---->f
__________
a------>F

part to whole

when someone tries to say that what is true of part of something must also be true of the whole thing together

ambiguous word

The argument unfairly exploits an ambiguity in a word by treating two different meanings of the words as if they were equivalent.

infer

to conclude

equivocate

To speak or act in a way that allows for more than one interpretation; to be deliberately vague or ambiguous

3 types of ad hominym flaws

1. attack motives
2. attack character
3.attack hypocrisy (i.e. doctor says no smoking, see doctor smoking, so you think its okay to smoke)

conclusions introduced by

therefore, thus, hence, consequently, so, it follows that, it can be concluded that

premises introduced by

because, since, for, after all, proven by the fact that...

assumption

unstated premise

most

majority

causal

have cause/effect relationship

IF formula

the part of the statement introduced by IF constitutes the sufficient condition. The other part of the statement constitutes the necessary condition

if the lake freezes, then the swans will migrate
freezes----> swans migrate

also works with WHERE instead of IF

Only If formula

part of the statement introduced by only if constitutes the necessary condition. The other part of the statement constitutes the sufficient condition.

you can access the network only if you have a valid password

access network-----> valid password
only when, only where work as well

all formula

the part of the statement introduced by all constitutes the sufficient condition. The other part of the statement constitutes as the necessary condition.

All vertebrates have backbones

vertebrates -----> backbones

no formula

part of the statement introduced by no constitutes the sufficient condition. the negation of the other part of the statement constitutes the necessary condition. always applies to statements that begin with no.

no reptiles are warm blooded.

reptiles----->warm blooded(negated)

unless formula

part of the statement introduced by unless constitues the necessary condition. The negation of the other part of the statement constitutes the sufficient condition

The boat will sink unless we repair the hull..

Boat will sink (negated) -------> repair hull

not both formula and either or formula

julian cannot be in both london and paris at the same time.

choose one and negate it, or negate both.

either or, one has to be negated both cannot be negated

some

one or more, the opposite of all, at least one

most

more than half

2 rules for quantifiers

1. always need 1 all statement
2. need to have same thing occurring on the sufficient side of the equation
all statement must come before some or most

a----b
a some c
____________
b some c

=

aaa
bbbb
cc

one exception to all rule is when you have 2 most rules to conclude a some relationship

fruitful

better

if argument

1. identify conclusion
2. look for premises
3. good or bad argument?

skeptical

disagree with

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set