a mountain range in South Asia that includes Mount Everest, the world's tallest mountain peak
a large land mass that is smaller than a continent
land that is rich farmland, composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water
a set of closely grouped islands
a ringlike coral island or string of small islands surrounding a lagoon
A seasonal wind, especially in South Asia
violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain
The dominant religion of india
River in South Asia; an important water resource flowing more than 1,500 miles from its source in a Himalayan glacier to the Bay of Bengal.
high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas
a broadened seaward end of a river, where the river's currents meet the ocean's tides
the Muslim empire established by the early 1500s over much of India, which brought with it new customs that sometimes conflicted with those of native Hindus
The period of British rule in India, which lasted for nearly 90 years, from 1857 to 1947
a movement that uses all means of protest except violence
the process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers
an agricultural program launched by scientists in the 1960s to develop higher-yielding grain varieties and improve food production by incorporating new farming techniques
the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation.
Indus Valley civilization
the largest of the world's first civilizations in what is now Pakistan; this was a highly developed urban civilization, lasting from 2500BC to 1500BC
separation; division into two or more territorial units having separate political status
a region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought
a small loan available to poor entrepreneurs, to help small businesses grow and raise living standards
a person who starts and manages a business
an Islamic month-long period of fasting from sunrise to sunset
A government in which the powers of a king or queen are limited by the constitution and the laws of a nation
a person of Tibetan ancestry in Nepal, who serves as the traditional mountain guide of the Mount Everest region
founder of Buddhism; the Buddha, born in southern Nepal in the sixth century
in Tibetan Buddhism, a geometric design that symbolizes the universe and aids in meditation
an Indo-Aryan people who crossed the strait separating India and Sri Lanka in the sixth century B.C. and who created an advanced civilization there, adopting Buddhism
a Dravidian Hindu, who arrived in Sri Lanka in the fourth century, settling in the North while the Sinhalese moved further south
a ruler of a Muslim country
one who renounces physical pleasures and worldly attachments for the sake of spiritual advancement; common in Hinduism and many other religious traditions, most notably Jainism.
The eternal self, which the Upanishads identify with Brahman; often lowercase: the eternal Self or soul on an individual that is reincarnated from one body to the next
The eternal essence of reality and the source of the universe, beyond the reach of human perception and thought.
A collection of 1,017 Sanskrit hymns composed about 1500 BC or earlier; Hinduism's oldest sacred text.
four goals of life
Kama, Artha, Dharma, and Moksha
The moral law of cause and effect of actions; determines the nature of one's reincarnation.
cosmic illusion brought about by divine creative power
Ethical duty based on the divine order of reality; one of the four goals of life.
liberation or release of the individual self, atman, from the bondage of samsara, salvation; one of the four goals of life.
The doctrine that reality is ultimately made up of only one essence.
A collection of over two hundred texts composed between 900 and 200 BC that provide philosophical commentary on the Vedas
The wheel of rebirth or reincarnation; the this-worldly realm in which rebirth occurs.
three paths to liberation
Karma Marga-"The Path of Works"; Jnana Marga-"The Path of Knowledge"; Bhakti Marga-"The Path of Devotion"
four stages of life
student, householder, forest dweller, and ascetic
an extreme ascetic who founded the religion Jainism
The renunciation of physical pleasures and worldly attachments for the sake of spiritual advancement; common in many religious traditions, most notably Jainism
principal of nonviolence, used in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism
The Jain spiritual heroes, such as Parshva and Mahavira, who have shown the way to salvation
The perfect and complete knowledge that is Jain enlightenment; marks the point at which one is free from the damaging effects of karma and is liberated from samsara
5 great vows
the vows that are binding for Jain ascetics: do not injure othre life-forms; avoid lying; do not take what has not been given; renounce sexual activity; and renounce possession.
The founder of Sikhism
invented the Khalsa
Sikhism's most important sacred text, and since it was installed as Guru in 1708, Sikhism's early authority
a spiritual teacher and revealer of truth, common to Hinduism and Sikhism
an order within Sikhism to which most Sikhs belong, founded by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699
the 5 k's
Kesh - uncut hair and beard, Kangha - a wooden comb to properly groom the hair as a symbol of cleanliness Katchera - specially made cotton underwear Kara- a steel circle, Kirpan - the sword
a special building that is reserved for Sikh worship and houses a copy of the Adi Granth; the central structure of the sikh community