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what are the 2 functions of the pancreas

endocrine (beta cells/insulin) & exocrine (digestive enzymes amylase & lipase)

what is a congenital pancreas dz

endocrine pancreas insufficiency

what is an aquired pacreas dz

pancreatitis (canine & feline)

what is canine pancreatitis

acute/hemorrhagic
can occur at any time, often after a fatty meal
extreme adbominal pain, roaching
vomiting, maybe blood
diarrhea
lethargy

what is the pathology of canine pancreatitis

obstruction of flow of amylase/lipase
starts digesting pacreas, then leaks into abdomianl cavity, digesting surrounding tissue
life threatening

what is the dx of canine pacreatitis

history
CBC/profile
cPL is definitive dx
xray

what is cPL

pancreatic lipase immunoreactive assay

what is the treatment for canine panreatitis

supportive therapy
fluids
monitor potassium
antiemetics
pain mgmt (butorphanol)
antibiotics

what is the prognosis of canne pacreatitis

highly variable
poor if DIC
chronic dz may develop after acute episode

what are the signs of chronic caine pancreatitis

intermittant vomiting
lethargy
mabye diarrhea
rule out other causes of these symptoms
cPL imortant (elevated in chronic)

how is chrinic canine pancreatitis managed

wt loss
low fat/hi cab diet

what are the signs of feline pancreatitis

(acute or chronic)
chronic more common
abdominal pan
itermittent vomit
inappetance
rule out ther causes of symptoms

what is frequently associated with feline pancreatitis

IBD
pandora's
hepatic lipidosis

how is feline pacreatitis dx'd

index of suspicion
lab work:fPL CBC profile
xrays

how is feline pancreatitis treated

treat underlying dz
support during acute phases
feed grain free diet
antiemetics
fluids

who does pancreatic cancer affect

dogs & ferrets, rare

what is insulinoma

pancreatic cancer

how is pancreatic cancer dx'd

profoundly low blood glucose
ultrasound

how is pancreatic cancer treated

Sx
xray lungs to make sure not metastitcised

when does diabetes mellitus occur

when the endocrine function of insulin production malfunctions

what are the 2 types of diabetes mellitus and how are they different

type 1 is insulin dependent, deficiency in amt of insulin produced
type 2 is adult onset, resistence of cells to insulin

what are some causes of diabetes mellitus

heredity
autoimmune
chronic pancreatitis (beta cells get damaged)

what is the pathology of diabetes mellitus

lack of glucose entering cells causes increased blood glucose, glucosuria, perm neurological damage, muscle mass loss
ketosis

what are the clinical signs of non ketotic dibetes mellitus

dehydration
pu/pd
polyphagia
cararcts (sudden)
Uti
plantigrade stance in cats

what are teh clinical signs of ketitic diabetes mellitus

depression
weakness
tachpnea
vomiting
acetone breath odor

what dog breeds are predisposed to doabetes mellitus

schauzers
poodles
keeshonds
daschunds
cocers
beagles
cairn terriers

what cat types are predisposed to diabetes mellitus

obese
older
may occur with heptaic lipidosis

what is the dx of diabetes mellitus

clinical signs
blood glucose >200
glucosuria w/ketones

what is the treatment of diabetes mellitus

regulate blood glucose levels
insulin injections 1 or 2 times/day

what types of insulin are there

human: humalin, glargine (lantus)
vet: pork/beef NPH, PZI

how do you check insulin in cats & dogs

cats: ear prick
dogs: urine check

what types of insulin do cats & dogs get respectively

cats: PZI, lantus/glargine
dogs: NPH

what are other treatment considerations for diabetes mellitus

exercise, mod & consistent
grain free diet for cats
high fiber & wt loss diet for dogs

how is diabetes mellitus regulated

manage underlying sz conditions
consistency is key
spay/neuter b/c hormones bad for regulating glucose in blood

what is ketoacidosis

persistent hypergycemia
ketotic & acidic blood

how is ketoacidosis treated

hosptialize
fluid support
IV regular insulin
montor potassium levels
monotr BG hourly

what are other complications from diabetes mellitus

insulin shock from too much insulin or not enough food
stagger/collapse at peak insulin (6-8 hrs after injection)
coma if untreated
treat with glucose, karo or honey on gums
bring to hospital

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