Oceanography

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Characteristics of a anthropod

Exoskeleton
Articulation of appendages
Striated muscle

Define: Anthropod

lobsters, shrimp, krills, barnacles. Most successful.

Not a characteristic of anthropod

Asymmetry

What class is comprised of nautiluses, octopuses, and squid?

Cephalopoda

What is considered the most advanced animal phyla?

Chordata

Chondrichthyes include

Sharks
Rays
Skates

Tuna is in the ____ class

Teleostei within osteichthyan

What class includes bony fish species such as mackerel?

Osteichthyes

Which worm has a segmented body plan?

Annelida

are the least successful vertebrate in the marine environment

Amphibians

Cnidarians are considered the most primitive true animal?

False

The most primitive true animal is....

Poifera

Where are Echinodermata found?

exclusively in marine habitats

What is the transitional organism from invertebrates to vertebrates?

Amphioxus

What makes up the greatest biomass of any species on Earth?

Krill

Which of the following is an invertebrate chordate?

Tunicates

What do the simplest vertebrates lack?

Jaws

What comprises an arthropod's exoskeleton?

Chitin

What is the most recent marine mammal with respect to evolution?

Sea Otters

Cetaceans are comprised of Manatees, dolphins, seals, and sea otters

False, Mammalia

What are Cetaceans comprised of?

The toothed whale (Odontoceti) and filter feeders (Mysticeti)

This suborder include the largest animals to ever inhabit the earth.

Mysticete

Barnacles are molluscs.

False

What are barnacles?

Phylum Arthropoda

What has baleen instead of teeth?

Mysticete

In terms of density, what is the most common distribution

Clumped

What type of water is a mixture of both freshwater and seawater?

Brackish water

What is the study of the relationships of organisms and the interactions in the community

Ecology

What is a community

A group of interacting organisms of different species sharing a common living space

An Estuary...

Has a standing biomass per unit of surface area is the highest among any marine community
Typically has brackish water
Is where freshwater and seawater mix

An organism's address within it's community, it's physical location is also known as....

habitat

A niche is:

an organism's role in the community

Salinity, Temperature, Wave Shock are:

Physical Factors

A stable, long-established community is known as a

climax community

An organism with a wide range of tolerance for salinity changes is said to be...

Euryhaline

A stenothermal organism might be best adapted for which condition?

1-2° C

There is no photosynthesis occurring in the deep water because of the permanent darkness. For the most part, consumers rely on the biological activity above them for nutrients.

True

What process re-establishes climax communities after a major disruption in the environment?

Succession

This community is named the deep scattering layer due to its tendency to reflect sound pulses which make it appear like a false bottom to people above. The scattering layer itself is comprised of a dense population of fish, squid, and other vertical migrators.

Deep Scattering Layer

What do many deep water organisms use for feeding and the attraction of mates?

Bioluminescence

Why was the feeding strategy of giant tube worms, Riftia, such a mystery to scientists when they were first discovered?

These worms have no mouth.
These worms have no digestive tract.
These worms have no anus.

What can occur when organisms are exposed to air and sunlight?

Desiccation

What is thought to aid the proliferation and spread of hydrothermal vents?

Whale falls

Characteristics of deep water animals

Deep water organisms tend to move slowly.
b.
Deep water organisms require little food to survive.
c.
Deep water organisms have a high metabolic rate.
d.
Deep water organisms tend to have a long life span.

Wave shock is a not a problem for intertidal organisms. It gently bathes the area around them and exerts very little force on the organisms.

False

What is considered to be the world's most important commercial marine product?

Algin

What tools do fishermen now employ to locate schools of fish?

Scouting vessels
Satellite sensors
Ariel photography

What is the fastest-growing mariculture production?

Shrimp

Why does oil seep to the surface from its source rock?

Oil is less dense than surrounding sediments

What marine resource has been rendered uneconomical due to the high cost of extraction?

Manganese nodules

What is the petroleum found in marine sediments likely to have been formed from?

Bacteria

How much of the world's table salt is produced by the evaporation of seawater?

One third

What is the second most valuable marine resource?

Gravel

What is the main species of whale targeted by the Japanese and Norwegian whalers?

Minke whales

What kind of resource is waste disposal?

Nonextractive resource

What is bycatch?

Organisms unintentionally killed during the harvesting of a different, desirable species

Who is responsible for the consumption of approximately a quarter of the global oil supply?

United States

Many harvested marine animals are sustainable because they are being caught below the maximum sustainable yield

False; 90% disappeared in last 50 years

Nonrenewable resources are unable to be replenished over short time spans. These resources include oil, gas, and solid mineral deposits

true

The motion of the waves can be used to generate energy.

true

Algin is a biological resource extracted from seaweed and is an important commercial product used:

to stiffen fabrics
as a thickener or emulsifier
to prevent large crystals in ice cream
to clarify beer and/or wine

Of the top five fish-harvesting nations, which one catches the most?

China

A mid-water trawl net is large enough to:

hold one dozen 747 jet liners

An unintentional but unavoidable consequence of drift net fishing is the drowning of larger non-target species such as sea lions, sharks, and other large animals

true

Archaean organisms can be used in detergents.

True

What determines an organism's response to a particular pollutant?

The quantity of the pollutant
The toxicity of the pollutant
The persistence of the pollutant

How long does it take for many plastics to decompose?

400 years

How long does marine life usually tend to recover from a crude oil spill?

5 years

Who was responsible for the environmental movement?

Rachel Carson

What happens when corals exceed their normal temperatures for too long of a period of time?

Corals eject their zooxanthellae

How do the insoluble components of oil affect the ocean?

Prevent free diffusion of gas
Clog feeding structures Decrease the amount of light penetrating the surface

Why is the ozone layer important?

It protects Earth from ultraviolet rays.

What percentage of marine pollutants originates from human activities on land?

77%

Based on MARPOL, what type of material is illegal to dump at sea any distance from shore?

Plastic

Where does the largest addition of oil to the ocean come from?

Natural seeps of crude oil

Although these are all common in our atmosphere, which one is not a greenhouse gas?

Nitrogen

Which of the greenhouse gases is considered the number one global warming gas?

Carbon dioxide

Which habitat is the most impacted by pollutants?

Estuaries

What is favorable news associated with global warming—perhaps one of the few advantages?

The Northwest Passage may open

Which oil is more harmful?

...

Crude oil is more harmful to the environment than refined oil.

False

The acceptance of global energy change is difficult because fossil fuels power most of the world economies

True

The depletion of the ozone layer near the poles had a major impact on the productivity of plankton. This is because the plankton was receiving too much

UV Light

In some cases, areas where oil spills were cleaned had communities in worse shape than in areas where an oil spill was left alone.

True

There is an area is the North East Pacific where plastic has been accumulating for a long time and has come to be known as:

The East Pacific Garbage Patch

Until recently, in the past 400,000 years, carbon dioxide had never exceeded ppm.

300

In what era do we see the most dramatic rise in carbon dioxide

The Industrial Revolution

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