molecules whose stored energy can be released for use
what is the most common fuel in organisms?
glucose is converted to pyruvate and a small amount of energy . this occurs in all cells and is anaerobic.
aerobic and converts pyruvate into H2O, CO2, and ATP
anaerobic and converts pyruvate into lactic acid or ethanol, CO2, and much less energy
if ____ is present then glycolosis is followed by the 3 pathways of cellular respiration
if O2 is not present the pyruvate from glycolosis is metabolized by __________
how many tap are made from cellular respiration and fermentation?
32 from cellular respiration
2 from fermentation
one substance transfers electrons to another substance
gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule
loss of one or more electrons
the reactant that becomes reduced is the _________
the reactant that becomes oxidized is the ________
glycolosis takes place in the __________
addition of a phosphate group
Enzyme-catalyzed transfer of a phosphate group from a donor to ADP to form ATP is called
substrate level phosphorylation
energy investment steps use ________ molecules per glucose
energy releasing steps produce ___________ molecules per glucose
what does GTP do?
converts ADP to ATP
ATP is synthesized by reoxidation of electron carriers.
Convert light energy to chemical energy as ATP and NADPH
Use ATP and NADPH (from the light reactions) plus CO2 to produce carbohydrates.
light independent reactions
Light is a form of __________
electro magnetic radiation
what holds the sugar in the cell during these reactions
what is the output of glycolosis
2 Hydrogen ions
acetate and coenzyme A combine to form?
what are the steps of glycolosis and cellular respiration?
glycolisis-> pyruvate oxidation-> citric acid cycle-> electron transport/ATP synthesis->CO2 and H2O
why does the electron transport chain have so many step?
having it in one step would release too much free energy at one time causing the cell to be unable to harvest it.
when is energy released in the electron transport chains?
as the electrons are passed between carriers
what does ATP synthase do?
couples proton movment and ATP synthesis which diffuses protons back into the mitochondria
_____________ is a common uncoupling protein
what is phosphofructokinase allosterically regulated by?
the energy of light is inversely proportional to its ______________
light behaves as particles called __________
plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment
Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light
what are the two pigments in plants that absorb light?
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
name two accessory pigments
phycobilins and caretinoids
the reaction center converts light energy into __________
what are the two systems of electron transport in photosynthesis?
noncyclic and cyclic
what does noncyclic electron transport produce?
ATP and NADPH
what does cyclic electron transport produce?
how does photosystem 2 acquire electrons?
by splitting water
where does cyclic electron transport start and end?
Light-driven production of ATP—a chemiosmotic mechanism
what is the most abundant enzyme in the world?
what are the three processes in the calvin cycle?
fixation of CO2
reduction of 3PG and G3P
Regeneration of RuGP
_________ is the product of the calvin cycle in which most is recycled into RuBP and the rest is used to make sugars
when is photorespiration more likely?
during hot days when the stomata are closed
what are C3 plants?
roses, wheat, and rice
what are C4 plants?
corn, sugarcane and tropical grasses
in prokaryotes __________ results in two new identical cells
what is ori- and ter-?
ori-where replication starts
ter- where replication ends
nuclear division in cells involved in sexual reproduction (gametes).
The period between cell divisions, divided into mitosis/cytokinesis and interphase
the cell cycle
between end of cytokinesis and onset of S phase; chromosomes are single, unreplicated structures
at the G1-to-S transition a commitment is made to DNA replication and cell division
DNA replicates; one chromosome becomes two sister chromatids
Gap 2—end of S phase, cell prepares for mitosis
Transitions depend on activation of
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's).
A ______________ is an enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation from ATP to a protein
External chemical signals (proteins) that stimulate these cells to divide
_____________ produced in the kidneys stimulates division of bone marrow cells and production of red blood cells
The sister chromatids are held together along most of their length by a protein complex called
proteins with positive charges that attract negative phosphate groups of DNA. they pack DNA
the ________ determines the plane of cell division
form spindle; overlap in center (run from one pole to the other)
attach to kinetochores on the chromatids. Sister chromatids attach to opposite halves of the spindle
kinetochore spindle fibers
During _____________, the nuclear envelope breaks down
hydrolyzes ATP for energy to move chromosomes along the microtubules towards the poles
A ___________ organism may reproduce itself
The offspring are not identical to the parents
body cells not specialized for reproduction.
Two haploid gametes (female egg and male sperm) fuse to form a diploid zygote; chromosome number = 2n
In protists, fungi, and some algae—zygote is only diploid stage
haplontic life cycle
Exchange of genetic material occurs at the chiasmata is called