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final exam quizlet/review

Jacob Burckhardt's view of the Renaissance

overstating the Renaissance was a "rebirth"

Factors in the start of the Hundred Years' War

Rivalry of England and France as the two strongest Western European Powers, The land held by English kings in southwestern France, Manufacture of woolen textiles in Flanders, The English king's claim to the French throne.

what the Tutor line of English monarchs was know for

absolute rule

Would England retain continental possessions in France?

Question settled in the Hundred Years' War

"founder of French absolutism"

Louis XI

Tactics used by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

Directly limiting the constitutions of Aragon and Castile to enhance their power and persuing an aggressive policy in acquiring Italian lands.

Factors undermining the influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages

an increase of nationalism, the rise of strong monarchs in England and France, the new economic emphasis on money, and the growth of humanism

Francesco Petrarch

humanism

Jan van Eyck's painting

attention to details and style typifies Flemish Renaissance style

The Black Death

increase in the proportion of unqualified clergy

Reasons the Protestant Reformation was successful

kings wanted to contain absolute control, land hungry nobility wanted church property, an alienated middle class, and spirit of questioning and individualism

absolute state=protestant reformation

political and religious divided, which had formerly weakened the power of the political ruler

Martin Luther's beliefs

papal infallibility, Jan Hus's doctrines were not heretical, attack on the sale of Indulgences, and salvation through faith alone

invention in last fifteenth century in Germany

The printing press

Ulrich Zwingli's teachings differed from with Martin Luthers

the meaning of communion

Philip II of Spain

ended Turkish control of the Mediterranean with military attacks

Was not a principle motive for European colonization in the in the 15th and 16th centuries

overcrowding due to industrial agglomeration

Thirty Years War

developed a more modern state system, breaking up the HRE, moving the focus of economic wealth from central to western Europe, religious diversity

Henry IV's foreign policy

preventing Hapsburg encirclement of France

Cardinal Mazarin of France

established a legacy of absolutism

Privy Council

legal cases

Provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht

French and Spanish thrones were to remain permanently separate, duchies of Prussia and Savoy became kingdoms, Dutch could build and maintain fortresses, and France recognized the English Hanoverian succession.

Conflict between King James I and Parliament did not involve

Jame's anti-Spanish policy

John Locke

"Tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right, which nobody can have a right to; and this is making use of the power any one has in his hands, not for the good of those who are under it, but for his own private, separate advantage."

Francis Bacon

Valid knowledge is discovered from sensory experience and observation, the scientific method

artwork movement in painting

Baroque

The Hohenzollerns of Prussia were known for

the unification of Germany

Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia both

strengthened absolute rule

Cladue Monet

Impressionist style

"South Sea Bubble"

inflated confidence in a British corporation of investors that collapsed

19th century outbreaks of revolution occurred in

France, Prussia, Austria-Hungary

19th century British imperial policy

expanding British control in southern Africa, establishing trading posts in India, opening China to western trade, and promoting the sale of opium in China

steam powered shipe, medical advancements, improved weapons, and nationalists movements in Western Europe

contributing factors to European territorial expansion

British North American Act

allowed Canada to administer its own affairs

Indian suspicions that the British wanted to stifle native religions, rumors rifle cartridges contained animal fats, British efforts to eliminate sati, and Indian nationalism and objections to Britian's annexing territory

Causes of the Sepoy Rebellion

Baron de Montesquieu

English adopted responsible government because their northern climate made them enthusiastic and hearty

Russian 19th century foreign policy was not centered around

establishing colonies in North Africa

British Liberal and Conservative Parties

both supported home rule for Ireland

Romanticism

idealizing nature, personal freedom, and the exotic

When was the House of Lords power permanently reduced?

by 1911

Kulturkampf

universial suffrage to Prussian upper house

What allowed serfs independence from their landowning nobles but kept them tied to villages?

The 1861 Emancipation Edict of Russia

The assassination of Czar Alexander II

People's Will

Deism

a reaction to religious wars, subjected religion to the scientific processes, emphasized the role of reason in finding truth, and was a religion all mankind could accept without controversy

"a geographical expression"

No political entity could correctly be called Italy

Who gained social and political attention by using radical and somewhat violent tactics

The Women's Social and Political Union

compulsory conscription began

Germany

What caused Great Britian to join WWI?

Germany invaded neutral Belgium

What was Woodrow Wilson's goals for the post war world?

The Fourteen Points

When Germany invaded Poland in the early 20th century, what did this signal?

The outbreak of WWII

In 1941 in WWII

Germany began it's assult on the USSR and Japan attacked the United States

What isolated and disenfranchised Germany's Jews?

the Nuremberg Laws

What did the Marshall Plan do?

It promised extensive financial aid to European nations sponsored by the United States to get nations receiving aid to pledge cooperation

Who established a strong Communist force in East Germany?

Walter Ulbrichht

Bretton Woods Conference

economic stability after WWII

What caused France to quit their colonial efforts in Indochina in 1954?

It lost the battle at Dien Bien Phu

Cause: Soviet blockade of West Berlin

Effect: NATO created

nations who joined together to recapture the Suez Canal in 1956

Isreal, France, and Britain

In October 1957 in the USSR

Sputnik was launched

phinosophical disputes over abou the meaning and path of the Communist expansion lead to

the Sino-Soviet split

Cause: Louis XVI dismissed Jacques Necker

Effect: Storming of the Bastille

Cause: Dreyfus case

Effect: a long lasting political divide between liberal and conservative thinkers in France that weakened The Third Republic until it was defeated by Germany

Alexander II of Russia

reformed serfdom practices, improved the army, reorganized the judicial system, and "Russified" Poland

Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud

discounted the sole importance of rationality and reason

Causes for the outbreak of WWI

Bismarck's dismissial of William II of Germany, Serbian nationalism, imperialistic competition in Africa, and Moroccan Independence

Lenin and Maxism disagreed

Lenin criticized labor unions for their focus on short-term goals rather and long-term commitment to revolutionary change

What America joined WWI

Britian exaggurated stories of German atrocities against civilians, the Germans followed a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman telegram angered Americans

In the beginning of WWI

nations involved thought the war would end soon with a quick victory

why the Russian provisional government failed under Kerensky

it continued Russia's participation in WWI

What was Lenin's program to appease peasants and increase agricultural production?

The New Economic Policy

Cause: The Lateran Pact of 1929

Effect: a virtual alliance between the Catholic Church and Mussolini

What did the Beer Hall Putsch provide Hitler with?

a political forum to popularize him ideas through

Neville Chamberlain's "peace in our time"

The Munich Pact

Adolf Hitler's speech most likely would have addressed the following ideas in a speech

criticism of the Treaty of Versailles, promoting economic status of working women, criticism of the Weimer Republic, praise for German nationalism, and promises of increased employment

a decisive surprise attack against the USSR

Germany's Operation Barbarossa

the American response to the attempted Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe

Truman Doctrine

Nikita Khruschev

denounced the abuses of Stalin

What was not a part of the Weimer constitution in Germany?

the suspension of religious tolerance

In 1933, the Reichstag Fire was a turning point in Hitler's rise to power because it allowed Hitler to prey upon the German fear of communist infiltration, which allowed him to do what?

It increased public acceptance of his suspension of civil liberities

The Spanish Civil War influenced which artist to paint Guernica?

Pablo Picasso

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