Jacob Burckhardt's view of the Renaissance
overstating the Renaissance was a "rebirth"
Factors in the start of the Hundred Years' War
Rivalry of England and France as the two strongest Western European Powers, The land held by English kings in southwestern France, Manufacture of woolen textiles in Flanders, The English king's claim to the French throne.
what the Tutor line of English monarchs was know for
Would England retain continental possessions in France?
Question settled in the Hundred Years' War
"founder of French absolutism"
Tactics used by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Directly limiting the constitutions of Aragon and Castile to enhance their power and persuing an aggressive policy in acquiring Italian lands.
Factors undermining the influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages
an increase of nationalism, the rise of strong monarchs in England and France, the new economic emphasis on money, and the growth of humanism
Jan van Eyck's painting
attention to details and style typifies Flemish Renaissance style
The Black Death
increase in the proportion of unqualified clergy
Reasons the Protestant Reformation was successful
kings wanted to contain absolute control, land hungry nobility wanted church property, an alienated middle class, and spirit of questioning and individualism
absolute state=protestant reformation
political and religious divided, which had formerly weakened the power of the political ruler
Martin Luther's beliefs
papal infallibility, Jan Hus's doctrines were not heretical, attack on the sale of Indulgences, and salvation through faith alone
invention in last fifteenth century in Germany
The printing press
Ulrich Zwingli's teachings differed from with Martin Luthers
the meaning of communion
Philip II of Spain
ended Turkish control of the Mediterranean with military attacks
Was not a principle motive for European colonization in the in the 15th and 16th centuries
overcrowding due to industrial agglomeration
Thirty Years War
developed a more modern state system, breaking up the HRE, moving the focus of economic wealth from central to western Europe, religious diversity
Henry IV's foreign policy
preventing Hapsburg encirclement of France
Cardinal Mazarin of France
established a legacy of absolutism
Provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht
French and Spanish thrones were to remain permanently separate, duchies of Prussia and Savoy became kingdoms, Dutch could build and maintain fortresses, and France recognized the English Hanoverian succession.
Conflict between King James I and Parliament did not involve
Jame's anti-Spanish policy
"Tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right, which nobody can have a right to; and this is making use of the power any one has in his hands, not for the good of those who are under it, but for his own private, separate advantage."
Valid knowledge is discovered from sensory experience and observation, the scientific method
artwork movement in painting
The Hohenzollerns of Prussia were known for
the unification of Germany
Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia both
strengthened absolute rule
"South Sea Bubble"
inflated confidence in a British corporation of investors that collapsed
19th century outbreaks of revolution occurred in
France, Prussia, Austria-Hungary
19th century British imperial policy
expanding British control in southern Africa, establishing trading posts in India, opening China to western trade, and promoting the sale of opium in China
steam powered shipe, medical advancements, improved weapons, and nationalists movements in Western Europe
contributing factors to European territorial expansion
British North American Act
allowed Canada to administer its own affairs
Indian suspicions that the British wanted to stifle native religions, rumors rifle cartridges contained animal fats, British efforts to eliminate sati, and Indian nationalism and objections to Britian's annexing territory
Causes of the Sepoy Rebellion
Baron de Montesquieu
English adopted responsible government because their northern climate made them enthusiastic and hearty
Russian 19th century foreign policy was not centered around
establishing colonies in North Africa
British Liberal and Conservative Parties
both supported home rule for Ireland
idealizing nature, personal freedom, and the exotic
When was the House of Lords power permanently reduced?
universial suffrage to Prussian upper house
What allowed serfs independence from their landowning nobles but kept them tied to villages?
The 1861 Emancipation Edict of Russia
The assassination of Czar Alexander II
a reaction to religious wars, subjected religion to the scientific processes, emphasized the role of reason in finding truth, and was a religion all mankind could accept without controversy
"a geographical expression"
No political entity could correctly be called Italy
Who gained social and political attention by using radical and somewhat violent tactics
The Women's Social and Political Union
compulsory conscription began
What caused Great Britian to join WWI?
Germany invaded neutral Belgium
What was Woodrow Wilson's goals for the post war world?
The Fourteen Points
When Germany invaded Poland in the early 20th century, what did this signal?
The outbreak of WWII
In 1941 in WWII
Germany began it's assult on the USSR and Japan attacked the United States
What isolated and disenfranchised Germany's Jews?
the Nuremberg Laws
What did the Marshall Plan do?
It promised extensive financial aid to European nations sponsored by the United States to get nations receiving aid to pledge cooperation
Who established a strong Communist force in East Germany?
Bretton Woods Conference
economic stability after WWII
What caused France to quit their colonial efforts in Indochina in 1954?
It lost the battle at Dien Bien Phu
Cause: Soviet blockade of West Berlin
Effect: NATO created
nations who joined together to recapture the Suez Canal in 1956
Isreal, France, and Britain
In October 1957 in the USSR
Sputnik was launched
phinosophical disputes over abou the meaning and path of the Communist expansion lead to
the Sino-Soviet split
Cause: Louis XVI dismissed Jacques Necker
Effect: Storming of the Bastille
Cause: Dreyfus case
Effect: a long lasting political divide between liberal and conservative thinkers in France that weakened The Third Republic until it was defeated by Germany
Alexander II of Russia
reformed serfdom practices, improved the army, reorganized the judicial system, and "Russified" Poland
Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud
discounted the sole importance of rationality and reason
Causes for the outbreak of WWI
Bismarck's dismissial of William II of Germany, Serbian nationalism, imperialistic competition in Africa, and Moroccan Independence
Lenin and Maxism disagreed
Lenin criticized labor unions for their focus on short-term goals rather and long-term commitment to revolutionary change
What America joined WWI
Britian exaggurated stories of German atrocities against civilians, the Germans followed a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman telegram angered Americans
In the beginning of WWI
nations involved thought the war would end soon with a quick victory
why the Russian provisional government failed under Kerensky
it continued Russia's participation in WWI
What was Lenin's program to appease peasants and increase agricultural production?
The New Economic Policy
Cause: The Lateran Pact of 1929
Effect: a virtual alliance between the Catholic Church and Mussolini
What did the Beer Hall Putsch provide Hitler with?
a political forum to popularize him ideas through
Neville Chamberlain's "peace in our time"
The Munich Pact
Adolf Hitler's speech most likely would have addressed the following ideas in a speech
criticism of the Treaty of Versailles, promoting economic status of working women, criticism of the Weimer Republic, praise for German nationalism, and promises of increased employment
a decisive surprise attack against the USSR
Germany's Operation Barbarossa
the American response to the attempted Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe
denounced the abuses of Stalin
What was not a part of the Weimer constitution in Germany?
the suspension of religious tolerance
In 1933, the Reichstag Fire was a turning point in Hitler's rise to power because it allowed Hitler to prey upon the German fear of communist infiltration, which allowed him to do what?
It increased public acceptance of his suspension of civil liberities
The Spanish Civil War influenced which artist to paint Guernica?