micro test 4 archaea and eubacteria

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peptidoglycan

archaea cell wall lacks

1970

domain archaea discovered in

Carl woese; rRNA sequencing

cclassified into the Domain Achaea by ___ based on ___

Methanogen;
extreme halophiles;
hyperthermophyle

3 major groups of archaea

methanogens

strict anaerobes; produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen

extreme halophiles

require high salt concentrations or survival

hyperthermophiles

grow in extremely hot condition

methanobacterium

methanogen;
have economic importance;
used in sewage-treatment to convert sewage sludge into methane gas (CH4);

Archaea;
methanogens

also inhabit human colon, vagina, and mouth

Halobacteriuam and halococcus

extreme halophiles;
live in the Great Salt lake (15-27% salinity; ocean = 3.5 % salt)

Sulfolobus

Hyperthermophiles;
can thrive in acidic pH2, sulfur-rich hot springs >70ºC

hyperthermophiles

some can live around hydrothermal vents (~100ºC) or within tube worms that live in hydrothermal vents of the ocean floor

Thermoplasma acidophilus

hyperthermophile;
can produce hydrogen gas from glucose

Thermococcus litoralis

DNA polymerase from ___, VentR, is used in PCR;
protein not denatured at 98ºC

domain Eubacteria

-prokaryotic cells;
-differ from Archaea based on rRNA squencing;
-Contain peptidoglycan cell wall;
-very diverse and grouped into different phyla

Phylum Proteobacteria

includes most of the gram negative chemoheterotrophic bacteria;
-largest taxonomic group of bacteria;
-separated into 5 classes

Alphaproteobacteria;
Betaproteobacteria;
Gammaproteobacteria;
Deltaproteobacteria;
Epsilonproteobacteria

5 classes of proteobacteria

proteobacteria

Azpsprilillum is in phylum

proteobacteria

Acetobacter is in phylum

proteobacteria

Rickettsia is in phylum

proteobacteria

Ehrlichia is in phylum

proteobacteria

Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiuam are in phylum

proteobacteria

Agrobacterium is in phylum

proteobacteria

Bartonella is in phylum

proteobacteria

Nitrobacter is in phylum

proteobacteria

Wolbachia is in phylum

Azospirillum

Genus ___, (Proteobacteria) is an important agricultural bacteria that fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere for plants and receives nutrients from the plants;
-live symbiotically with tropical grasses and termperate-climate plants (ie corn)

Acetobacter

Genus ___, (Proteobacteria) is industrially important aerobic bacteria that convert ethanol to vinegar (acetic acid)

Rickettsia

(Proteobacteria)
rod-shaped and gram-negative;
obligate intracelluler parasites which can only reproduce within a host cell - endothelial cells

Rikettsia prowazekii

(Proteobacteria)
causes epidemic typhus and is transmitted to humans by insect (tick and lice) bites;
-reproduce by binary fission once inside host cell;
-can be cultivated in cell culture or in chick embryos;
-in humans, damage the permeability of blood capillaries
-results in characteristic spotted rash

Ehrlichia

(Proteobacteria)
are gram negative organism that live obligatory within white blood cells;

Ehrlichiosis

caused by a Proteobacteria
symptoms: fever, thrombocytopenia (few # of platelets in blood) and leukopenia (decreasing # of circulating leukocytes in the blood)

Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium

(Proteobacteria)
•important to agriculture;
•they form symbiotic relationship with legumes, such as beans, peas and clover, by forming nodules on the roots of the plant.;
•bacteria fix nitrogen from the air fro the plants and receive nutrients from the plant

Agrobacterium

(Proteobacteria);
can invade plant tissue, but do not form nodules or fix nitrogen

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

is a plat pathogen that causes a disease of plants called crown gall;
-it inserts a plasmid that contains bacterial genetic material into the plant's chromosomal DNA;
-by studying this organism, scientist hope to eventually use it as a vehicle for inserting useful genetic information into plants, which is very difficult to do

Bartonella

(Proteobacteria);
rod -shaped Gram - bacteria;
several members are human pathogens

Bartonella henselae

causes cat-scratch fever (cause fatigue and headaches, backache, convulsion);
-disease usually resolved within month;
-can is vector; kittens are more likely to carry the bacteria in their blood

NItrobacter

(Proteobacteria);
are chemoautotrophs;
energy source is reduced nitrogenous compounds

nitrobacter and nitrosomonas

(Proteobacteria)
oxidize ammonium (NH4) and nitrite (NO2) which is converted into nitrates (NO3);
-nitrate in soil is used by plants; therefore, very important in agriculture

Wolbachia

(Proteobacteria);
-live only inside the cells of their host (endosymbiont), usually insects and nematodes;
-can effect sexual development of some insects;
-can turn males into females by interfering with the male hormone;
-can produce parthenogenic females

Proteobacteria

Thiobacillus is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Spirillum is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Burkholderia is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Bordetella is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Neisseria is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Zoogloea is in phylum

Thiobacillus

Proteobacteria;
chemoautotrophs
-capable of obtaining energy by oxidizing the reduced forms of sulfur, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide), or elemental sulfur in sulfates (SO42-);
-sulfates are used by plants and bacteria to form sulfur-containing amino acids for humans and other animals to use

Spirillum

Proteobacteria;
gram negative spiral bacteria;
-found mainly in fresh water;
-motile by polar flagella

Burkholderia

Proteobacteria;
motile by single polar flagellum

Burkholderia cepacia

Proteobacteria
gram - rod;
are able to metabolize more than 100 different organic molecules;
-can contaminate equipment and drugs in hospitals;
-may grow in disinfectant solutions;
-can be a problem in cystic fibrosis patients because it metabolizes accumulated respiratory secretions

Bordetella

Proteobacteria
gram - rod;
virulent forms have capsules

Bordetella pertussis

causes whooping cough

Neisseria

Proteobacteria;
gram - diplococci;
usually inhabit the mucous membranes of mammals;

Niesseria gonorrhoeae;
Neisseria meningitidis -meningococcal meningitis

pathogenic members of genus Neisseria

Zoogloea

Proteobacteria
members of this genus are important is sewage treatment

Proteobacteria

Beggiatoa is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Pseudomonas is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Azotobacter and Azomonas are in phylum

Proteobacteria

Moraxella is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Legionella is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Vibrio is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Escherichia is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Salmonella is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Shigella is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Klebsiella is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Serratia is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Proteus is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Yersinia is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Enterobacter is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Hemophilus or Haemophilus is in phylum

Beggiatoa

Proteobacteria;
secretes slime to help with motility by gliding;

Beggiatoa alba

uses hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source

Pseudomonas

Proteobacteria;
gram - rods;
motile by polar flagella

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Proteobacteria
•produces a blue-green pigment;
•under the right conditions, particularly in weakened hosts, these organisms can infect the urinary tract, burs, and wounds and can cause septicemia, abscesses (pus), and meningitis;
•can grow on soap residues and some antiseptics such as quats;
•are resistant to most antibiotics due to small size of the cell wall porins and ability to pump out antibiotics

Azotobacter and Azomonas

Proteobacteria;
free-living in the soil;
nitrogen fixers

Moraxella

Proteobacteria;
aerobic coccobacilli

Moraxella lacunata

Proteobacteria
is implicated in conjunctivitis

Legionella; legionellosis; Legionnaries'

Proteobacteria
contains 6 species;
causes ___ ( ___ disease cause pneumonia);
-does not grow on usual laboratory media;
-a specially buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar was developed for use in its isolation and growth;
-can grow within macrophages;
-found in streams and can colonize warm-water supply lines in hospital;
-does not stain with usual stains

Vibrio

Proteobacteria;
facultative anaerobic gram - rods;
slightly curved

Vibrio cholerae

Proteobacteria
causes cholera

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Proteobacteria;
causes less serious gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans mostly by raw or undercooked shellfish

Escherichia

Proteobacteria;
common inhabitant of the intestinal tract

Escherichia coli

Proteobacteria;
not usually pathogenic but may cause urinary tract infections and certain strains produce enterotoxins that cause travelers' diarrhea and occasionally cause very serous food- born disease

Salmonella; typhoid

Proteobacteria;
-almost all members of this genus are potentially pathogenic;
-are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of animals;
gatrointestinal diseases less severe that ___ fever are caused by other strains of this species

Salmonella typhi

Proteobacteria;
causes typhoid fever;
-cells multiply within phagocytic cells

Shigella; shigellosis

Proteobacteria;
members of this genus are responsible for bacillary dysentery or ___;
-can also cause travelers' diarrhea;
-some strains can cause life-threatening dysentery

Klebsiella

Proteobacteria;
commonly found in soil or water;

Klebsiella pneumoniae

major cause of septicemia in pediatric wards and is also a cause of one form of pneumonia

septicemia

Proteobacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of ___ in pediatric wards and is also a cause of one form of pneumonia

Serratia marcescens

Proteobacteria;
-is distinguished by its production of red pigment;
-it has been found on catheters and in saline irrigation solutions and thus may be cause of urinary and respiratory tract infections in hospitals

Proteus

Proteobacteria;
-members are actively motile with many flagella;
-member are implicated in infections of the urinary tract, infections of wounds, and in infant diarrhea

Yersinia pestis

Proteobacteria
causes bubonic plague;
-urban rats and ground squirrels are carriers of these organisms;
-fleas usually transmit the organism among animals and to humans

Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes

Proteobacteria;
-can cause urinary tract infections and hospital acquired infections;
-they are widely distributed in man and animals as well as in water, sewage, and soil

Hemophilus or Haemophilus

Proteobacteria;
-requires blood in the culture media;
-commonly inhabit the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract

Haemophilus influenzae

Proteobacteria;
is the most common cause of meningitis in young children and is one of the common causes of earaches

deltaproteobacteria

include some bacteria that are predators on other bacteria

Proteobacteria

Bdellovibrio is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Desulfovibrio is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Myxococcus is in phylum

Bdellovibrio

Proteobacteria;
attacks gram - bacteria

Desulfovibrio

Proteobacteria
sulfur-reducing bacteria; can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals

Myxococcus

Proteobacteria;
are motile and enzymatically lyse and digest bacteria they encounter

Epsilonproteobacteria

these bacteria are helical or vibrioid;
gram negative rods

Proteobacteria

Camphylobacter is in phylum

Proteobacteria

Helicobacter is in phylum

Campylobacter fetus

Proteobacteria;
causes abortion in domestic animals

Camplyobacter jejuni

Proteobacteria;
causes food borne intestinal disease

Helicobacter pylori

Proteobacteria;
can survive at low pH; causes peptic ulcers in humans and cause stomach cancer

Nonproteobacteria

some in this phylum are photosynthetic bacteria

Nonproteobacteria

Cyanobacteria is in phylum

Nonproteobacteria

Green sulfur bacteria is in phylum

Nonproteobacteria

Green nonsulfur bacteria are phylum

Cyanobacteria

Nonproteobacteria;
are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria;
-many are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialized cells called heterocysts

heterocysts

specialized cells of Cyanobacteria phylum Nonproteobacteria;
-contain enzymes that fix nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) that can be used by the growing cell

Green sulfur bacteria and Green nonsulfur bacteria

Nonproteobacteria;
anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria

Firmicutes

gram positive bacteria with low G+C ration

Firmicutes

Clostridium is in phylum

Clostridium

Firmicutes;
members are obligate anaerobes that produce endospores ;
rod shaped

Clostridium tetani

Firmicutes;
causes tetanus or lockjaw

Clostridium perfringens

Firmicutes;
causes gas gangrene and foodborne diarrhea

Clostridium botulinum

Firmicutes;
causes botulism by producing botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin

•produced by Clostridium Botulinu, genus Firmicutes;
•releases by lysis;
•neurotoxin - acts at neuromuscular junction;
•attaches to SNARE complex and causes paralysis; muscle tone lacking

Blepharospasm

Botulinum toxin can be used to treat ___

Firmicutes

Bacillus is in phylum

Bacillus

Firmicutes;
members produce endospores

Bacillus anthracis; anthrax

Firmicutes;
causes ___, a disease of cattle, sheep, and horses that can be transmitted to humans

Bacillus thuringiensis

Firmicutes;
is an important isect pathogen that causes paralysis of the insect's gut and the insect ceases to feed and dies

Firmicutes

Staphylococcus is in phylum

Staphylococcus

Firmicutes;
occurs like grapelike clusters

Staphylococcus aureus

Firmicutes;
•produces many toxins that contribute to its pathogenicity;
•causes infection of surgical wounds;
•is the agent that causes Toxic Shock Syndrome;
•produces an enterotoxin that causes vomiting and nausea when ingested (one of the most common types of food poisoning);
•can develop resistance quickly to antibiotics such as penicillin

Firmicutes

Lactobacillus is in phylum

Lactobacillus

Firmicutes;
-produce lactic acid from simple carbohydrates;
-the acidity inhibits competing bacteria;
-located in the vagina, gastrointestinal tract, and oral cavity;
-common industrial uses are in production of:
sauerkraut;
pickles;
buttermilk;
yogurt

Firmicutes

Streptococcus is in phylum

Strepococcus Beta hemolytic species

Firmicutes;
produce an enzyme called hemolysin which lyse Red blood cells forming a clear zone around the colony on blood agar

Streptococcus pyogenes

Firmicutes Group A;
causes disease such as scarlet fever and pharyngitis

Stretococcus agalactiae

Firmicutes Group B;
causes neonatal sepsis

Streptococcus Alpha-hemolytic species

Firmicutes;
form a green color around the colonies in blood agar

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Firmicutes, Streptococcus Alpha-hemolytic species;
-causes pneumococcal pneumonia

Streptococcus mutans

Firmicutes, Streptococcus Alpha-hemolytic species;
-causes dental cavities

Enterococcus

Firmicutes;
inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (human feces), the vagina and oral cavity

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

Firmicutes;
responsible for infections of surgical wounds and the urinary tract

Firmicutes

Enterococcus is in phylum

Firmicutes

Listeria is in phylum

Listeria monocytogenes

Firmicutes;
-a pathogen that can contaminate dairy products, like cheese;
-poses a threat of stillbirth or serious damage to the fetus if it infects a pregnant woman

Firmicutes

Mycoplasma is in phylum

Mycoplasma

Firmicutes;
-do not form cell walls;
-have a high sterol content in the plasma membranes;
-are not inhibited by penicillin

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Firmicutes;
causes primary atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia)

Actinobacteria

Mycobacterium is in phylum

Actinobacteria

Corynebacterium is in genus

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