D Psych Exam 2

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Four year old Erin is a picky eater. What is a good way for Erin's parents to encourage her to eat a new type of food?

Repeatedly expose her to the new food without any direct pressure to eat it

In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined dramatically during the past half century, largely as the result of

widespread immunization of infants and young children

In the United States, _______ are the leading causes of death among children more than 1 year old.

Accidents and Motor Vehicle Collisions

Five year old Chad is participating in Piaget's three-mountain task. When Chad is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the

Picture that shows his own point of view

Three year old Will brings all of his action figures to preschool for show-and-tell because he does not want any of them to feel lonely if they are left behind at home. Will is demonstrating:

Animistic thinking

Four year old Jasmine is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid. When the liquid is poured into a short, wide container, she says that there is more water in the shorter container because it is "all spread out." Jasmine is demonstrating

an inability to conserve / a lack of conservation

According to Vygotsky, a parent engages in _____ When s/he adjusts the support offered to the child during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.

Scaffolding

Information processing focuses on ______ that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.

Mental Strategies

Watching educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with

Higher grades, reading more books, and placing more value on achievement in high school

Inhibiting impulses and shifting attention through ________ Are vital in managing emotions during early childhood

Effortful Control

An important motivator of pro-social behavior is

Empathy

According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally

by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior

Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a "dodo head." This is an example of _____ aggression.

Verbal

In Michaela's preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play with blocks and Legos. This is an example of

Gender Typing

Which of the following is true about the authoritative child-rearing style?

Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, given reasons for their explanations, and use "teaching moments" to promote the child's self-regulation

_____ commit the vast majority of child abuse incidents

Parents

Inactivity is _____ excessive weight gain in children.

both a cause and consequence of

Which of the following is supported by research on recess?

Elementary school students are more attentive in the classroom after recess than before it

According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational thought is that children's mental operations work poorly with

Abstract Ideas

To help herself remembering that she needed cat food and gloves at the store, Cheryl imagined a car wearing gloves. WHich memory strategy did Cheryl use?

Elaboration

In Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, intelligent behavior involves balancing

analytical, creative, and practical intelligences

Dr. Whittier believes that many IQ tests sample knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had the opportunity to learn. Dr. Whittier's belief reflects the controversial questions that ethnic differences in IQ have to do with

Test Bias

Carter, an African-American boy, is told by a researcher that certain verbal tasks are "not a test." He is told that other verbal tasks are "a test of how good children are at school problems." If Carter is aware of ethnic stereotyping, which of the following is probable true?

He will perform far worse in the "test" condition

Rochelle is taking a test in which she is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. This is most likely a test of

Analytic Intelligence

According to Erikson. the psychological conflict of middle childhood (4th Stage) is :

Industry versus Inferiority

Mr. and Mrs. Rodriquez want to help develop their son's self-esteem. Which of the following would you suggest?

Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem

Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said "I'm hungry." She took the man's perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed

Empathy

When Erica's best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using

Emotion-Centered Coping

On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was rarely mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a _____ child

Neglected

Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwayne's gender identity self-evaluation?

Felt pressure to conform to gender roles

Research on the long-term consequences of divorce indicates that

most children chow improved adjustments by two years after divorce

Research on child sexual abuse indicates that

the abuser is most often a parent or someone the parent knows well / the abuser is most often a male

Fourteen-year-old Philip experiences muscle and body growth and notices the growth of facial and body hair. Which of the following hormones is responsible for this change?

Testosterone

Ann is having more frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. If they argue over typical parent-adolescent issues, these disagreements are most likely

about everyday matters, such as driving, dating partners, and curfew

_____ Is a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of compulsive fear of getting fat

Anorexia Nervosa

According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter the formal operational stage of development, in which they

are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflections

Fezzik wakes up one morning to find a pimple on his nose, he begs his mother to let him stay home from school, since everyone would be staring at him and his pimple. Fezzik's belief that he is the focus of everyone's attention is experiencing

the imaginary audience

Fifteen-year-old Luna is able to evaluate the logical of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances. According to Piaget, Luna is demonstrating

Propositional Thought

His school extracurricular activities that focus on the arts, community services, and vocational development

improve academic performance, self-esteem, and initiative

Adolescent drug experimentation

should not be taken lightly because drug use can lead to permanent injury or death

Studies show that 60 percent of middle school students and 90 percent of high school students are aware of the basic facts about AIDS, however...

are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against other STDs.

According to Erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence (stage 5) is development of

Identity

Lily's parents are concerned about how her level of self-esteem will change during adolescence. You can tell them that for most young people, it

rises

Lauren plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if she might change her career path, she responds, "I might, but I doubt it. I've spent a lot of time studying my options. I'm pretty sure engineering is right for me." Lauren is demonstrating identity

Achievement

Which of the following is true about bicultural identity?

Biculturally identified adolescents tend to have especially favorable relations with members of other ethnic groups.

Throughout adolescence, _____ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health.

the quality of parent-child relationship

Self-disclosure to _____ declines in early adolescence

parents

Teenage boys' discussions tend to involve more _____ than girls' conversations.

Competition and Conflict

The most common psychological problem of adolescence is

Depression

Mr. Swan is concerned about his 16-year-old daughter, who has been exchanging text messages with one particular boy. You should tell him that

close romantic ties promotes sensitivity, self-esteem, and identity development

Seven-year-old Chad is participating in Piaget's three-mountain task. When Chad is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the

correct picture and be able to explain why he chose that picture

Marlena teases Jessica by gossiping to all of her friends that she is a "dodo head." This is an example of _____ aggression.

relational

Kristin is asked to take a test looking at _____. On her test she is asked to come up with as many ways as possible of using a hammer.

divergent thinking.

Mr. and Mrs. Roe want to develop their son's self-esteem. Which of the following would help?

Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.

Lauren plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if she might change her career path, she responds, " No I won't. My parents have wanted me to become an engineer since I was very young, and they have sacrificed a lot to make sure that I go to college to become one." Lauren is demonstrating what Marcia would call identity _____.

foreclosure

Teenage girls' discussion tend to involve more _____ than boy's conversations.

self-disclosure

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