war of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France, ended with the Treaty of Ghent
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
President Jackson disobeyed a Supreme Court order to respect the treaty that the Congress had signed with the Cherokees nation. Against the judgment of John Marshall, President Jackson used force to remove the Cherokee nation to west of the Mississippi River. This action violated the nation's system of "checks and balances" the forced migration of the Cherokees by Jackson broke a treaty with the Indian Nation. Jackson also ignored the decision of the Supreme Court. Either charges would be punishable by impeachment. President Jackson is NOT impeached. People supported his action to remove the Indians from Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee. Of the 20,000 Cherokees that were forced to march from Tennessee to Oklahoma 5,500 died from the winter weather on route or due to starvation. Other natives groups were also forced to leave there native lands
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Dramatic increase between 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic, they especially discriminated against Irish immigrants
Pre-civil War south,the Antebellum South time was the approximately three decades before 1860 when "king" cotton and slave labor dominated the economy of the southern states.
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
Believers in perfectionism attempted to create utopian communities, example included the Oneida Community, Brook Farm, and the Shakers
people who stressed the relationship between humans and natures as well as the importance of the individual conscience
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean because it was their "god-given right"
this territory was bought from Great Britain in 1846., territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818
American slave owners revolted against the Mexican government when they banned slavery. This created disputes over the land's ownership. The U.S. did not have a free state to admit to the union so Texas could be a slave state, even though we had annexed Texas. Texas was it's own nation and was called the "Lone Star Republic"
after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
1848. Mexico recognized American claims to area north of Rio Grande. Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the US for 15 mil. US agreed to assume 3mil in debts mexico owed to Am citizens. Polk dissatisfied with treaty, wanted more territory
compromise of 1850
it abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia, admitted California as a free state and opened much of the Mexican Cession to popular sovereignty
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced New England's view on the Deep South and slavery, a novel promoting abolition, intensified sectional conflict and was banned in the South
Kansas nebraska act
This act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the act, lead to events such as Bleeding Kansas
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights, slaves as chattel
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War on December 20th, 1860
suspended habeas corpus out of fear people were living in union but helping the confed.s, unauthorized spending, sent troops out to stop rebellion in south without consent of congress
a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
civil war technologies
mass production of arms and munitions, they shipped men and supplies on railroads and steamboats, had telegraph as a means of communication, had rifles that shot 600 yds away, iron clads, and observational balloons
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Hosted by Dick Clark started airing in 1957, was a televised showcase of rock 'n' roll hits in which a live audience danced to recorded music. this spread of popularity of rock and made the host one of the best known figures among young Americans.
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance (June 23, 1972)
was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. It usually controlled Democratic Party nominations and patronage; immigrant support
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion, only the fittest would survive in a free marketplace with the political and economic struggles
was the nickname for Texas after they won their independence from Mexico, they couldn't join the U.S. because they didn't have a free state to enter in the union if Texas was a slave state
bull moose party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912, Roosevelt believed one must "speak softly and carry a big stick"
period at the start of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency in 1933, when many New Deal programs were passed by Congress, it set a standard for other presidents to follow because it showed that presidents should make serious changes/improvements during the first hunderd days of their presidency
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy, "hands off"
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest. it was a response to the Civil Rights movement
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress, ended in 1844
roe v wade
1973 Supreme court ruling that legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash because they needed the money during the depression
Black artistic movement in the 1920s that led to a rise in jazz and black culture, leading figures of the movement included Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Duke Ellington, Zora Neale Hurston, and Langston Hughes.
United States military base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Eisenhower planned to strike at Normandy, they set up a dummy army to fake out Hitler, it looked like it would attack French Seaport of Calais. The invasion of Normandy was the largest land and sea attack in history. It started on June 6, 1944. It was known as D-Day: British, American, French, Canadian troops fought their way onto 60 mile beach. Germans sheltered behind 3 feet thick concrete walls. The Allies took heavy casualties.
little rock nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High, a school with 2,000 white students. The governor George Wallace ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
A law enacted in 1883 that established a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of the merit system.
March 1917, a telegram sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
clear and present danger
phrase used in the Supreme Court decision, Schenck v. United States (1919). It refers to the idea that the government has the right to punish individuals who engage in speech or actions which can be shown to present a serious and immediate danger to the nation. This limited the freedom of speech in the first amendment
region dominated by the cattle industry and its ranches, trails, and cow towns, it streched from Texas to Canada
charter of liberties
a charter, signed by Pennsylvania, which established a representative assembly in Pennsylvania, and stated that the lower counties (Delaware) of the colony could establish their own representative assembly, guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration in 1701.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies, they ended this policy after the victory in the French and Indian war and began enforcing trade laws
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
essay written by Henry David Thoreau, it talked about the refusal to obey laws that are considered unjust as a nonviolent way to press charges.
The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
virginia and kentucky resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
was the summer of 1919 that brought race riots, began in July when whites invaded a black section of Longview, Texas and burned shops and houses. It was a lash out against the growth of blacks in cities
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act by Teddy Roosevelt, this was one of the results of muckrakers
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools to freed black people
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
She is known for her opposition to feministic ideas and for her ongoing campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment.She believed the Equal Rights Amendment was bad because there were obvious differences between men and women that should be recognized .
The Feminine Mystique
written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
interstate highway act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history; met the need of suburban growth and was a means to transport missiles
Nickname for the African American members of the 9th and 10th cavalries during the Spanish-American war
lend lease act
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States." This was part of the Isolationist foreign policy, and was overturned by the cash and carry policy where the U.S. gave extra support to Great Britain