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IAHCSMM

cell

the basic unit of life

cell membrane

the outer covering of a cell that regulates what enters it and leaves it

cytoplasm

surrounds the nucleus, and contains within-cell fluid and organelles

nucleus

oval structure that acts as brain center of the cell to direct and control all activities including duplication into two new cells

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

RNA

ribonucleic acid

chromosomes

comprised of DNA, these rod shaped structures / cells pass on the traits of parent cells to new cells, parent to child.

tissue

a group of similar cells that perform a specialized function

organ

a part of the body containing two or more tissues that function together for a specific purpose

system

a group of organs that work together to carry out a specific activity

tendons

a cord of fibrous tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

ligaments

a band of connective tissue that connects a bone to another bone

cartilage

a type of connective tissue

ossification

the process by which cartilage is replaced by bone

joint

any place where two bones meet

fascia

a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue

central nervous system (CNS)

the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

all nerve tissue outside the central nervous system

brain

the main control unit of the central nervous system

cerebrum

the largest part of the brain, it controls mental activities and movement

cerebellum

the second largest part of the brain, it controls muscle coordination, body balance and posture

brain stem

this controls many automatic body functions such as heart beat and breathing

hormones

chemical messengers that travel through the blood and act on target organs

metabolism

the total chemical changes by which the nutritional and functional activities of an organism are maintained

insulin

a hormone that reduces the level of sugar in the blood

glucagon

a hormone that can increase the blood sugar level

sperm

the male sex cell

ovum

the female sex cell

testes

the male reproductive gland that forms and secretes sperm and several fluid elements in semen

scrotum

sac in which testes are suspended

epididymus

a tube that carries sperm cells from the testes to the vas deferens

vas deferens

a duct that transfers sperm from the epididymus to the seminal vesicle

seminal vesicle

a gland that produces semen

ejaculatory duct

a duct formed by the joining of the seminal vesicles with the vas deferens, through which semen moves during ejaculation

semen

mixture of sperm cells and secretions from several male reproductive glands

urethra

a tube that discharges urine and semen

penis

male organ of urination and intercourse

prostate gland

produces a fluid element in semen that stimulates the motility of sperm

vagina

the muscular canal in a female that extends from an external opening to the neck of the uterus

uterus

a female organ within which the fetus develops during pregnancy

endometrium

lining of the uterus

fallopian tubes

slender tubes that convey the ova (eggs) from the ovaries to the uterus

fimbriae

finger-like projections extending from the fallopian tubes that draw ova (eggs) into the fallopian tube

ovaries

female reproductive glands

kidneys

organs that remove excess water and waste substances from the blood in a process that yields urine

ureters

tube-like structures extending from the kidneys to the urinary bladder that move urine between these organs

urinary bladder

the reservoir for urine

liver

an organ that filters the blood to remove amino acids and neutralize some harmful toxins

skin

this organ contains sweat glands that, through the process of perspiration, produces and eliminates sweat

nose

nasal cavity

mouth

the opening through which air, food and beverages enter the body, the beginning of the alimentary canal

pharynx

throat

esophagus

tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach

larynx

voice box

trachea

windpipe

bronchi

tube that extends from the trachea

lungs

the two organs of respiration

alimentary canal

the pathway that food takes through the digestive system; also called the digestive tract

stomach

a pouch that serves as a reservoir for food that has been consumed

small intestines

the organ in the digestive system where the greatest amount of digestion and absorption of nutrients into the body occurs

large intestine (colon)

the digestive organ that dehydrates digestive residues (feces)

rectum

the last several inches of the large intestine

anus

the lower opening of the alimentary canal

blood

a type of connective tissue fluid that transports many substances throughout the circulatory system

arteries

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

veins

vessels that carry blood back to the heart

capillaries

vessels that serve as connections between veins and arteries

heart

the muscular organ that pumps blood through out the body

atria

the two upper chambers of the heart

ventricles

the two lower chambers of the heart

aorta

the largest blood vessel in the body

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