Describe the skills of homo habilis, homo erectus, and homo sapiens neanderthalensis
Homo habilis- stone tools, no fire, small groups
Homo erectus- more diverse and sophisticated tools, had fire
homo sapiens neaderithalensis- very close to humans, complex social thingy, simple language, even more sophisticated tools
where did homo sapiens first emerge? From there, to where did they migrate?
African Rift Valley in eastern africa. Towards mesopotamia
Upon what did the survival of the earliest humans depend completely?
Six characteristics of paleolithic man
basic spoken language
traveled with food(dependent on environment)
Where is the most famous example of cave art located?
Lascoux (In france, and that could be spelled wrong just btw)
Five characteristics of Neolithic man
more advanced tools
slightly more advanced spoken language
Describe Stonehenge, Aleppo, Jericho, and Catalhoyuk. Give their locations and details about each
Stonehenge- modern day england, big stones, possibly religious stuff
Aleppo- modern day syria, one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world
Catalhoyuk- Modern day turkey (anatolia region)
To what does the term "Fertile Cresent" refer?
List the features of civilization
What is Mesopotamia
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates
What were some positives and negatives of living in a river valley
Positive- fertile soil, access to water
negative- no natural protection from enemies, often flooding
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Describe the types of leaders in early mesopotamia
sent from gods
Describe religion in mesopotamia in gerneral
polytheistic, to explain natural phenomenon
If you don't remember this, you are very stupid
what is the earliest form of written language
pictograms. And if you don't know what that means, its also self explanatory because:
Picto- roughly translates to picture
gram- roughly translates to drawn or written
so written/drawn pictures
What did the Phoenicians do?
They traded over sea, and they created the phoenician alphabet
Instead of a large expansive empire, the phoenicians had....?
Various ports that they controlled
What did the hittites do?
conquered everyone and killed them
Who was the most famous leader of the Chaldeans and what did the chaldeans to to the people of judah?
Nebuchadnezzar,brought them to babylon in the exile
Accomplishments of Darius I of Persia
Made provinces called satraps and made royal governors
How did the Persians treat those who they conquered?
Kind of just left them alone
Persian system of roads=
A religion founded in ancient Persia by the Prophet of the similar name. The religion centers on the worship of a god named Ahura Mazda and it teaches that a strict dualism of good and evil operates in the world until good triumphs over evil in a final apocalypse
Who was Abraham
kind of invented judeaism, and by default started christianity and islam as well
Belief in a single God
belief in multiple gods
Hebrew was the first major ____________ religion
What was the exodus?
Jews leaving slavery in Egypt
Who was moses
What were the ten commandments?
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
Who were the Judges and what were their jobs in Hebrew culture?
Scribes, judges, preists, and other stuff
What was the most important action of the Israelite King David?
He made Israel prosper alot
Who was King Solomon
King of Israel; known for his wisdom; King David's son; know for building a temple in Jerusalem; Israel reached the height of its power under his rule
What is the Torah?
Jewish holy book
Chaldean king who restored Babylon
The period of the Israelite captivity in Babylon after the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC.
spurred the development of Jewish communities all over the Mediterranean
Why was land around the Nile important?
Rich farmland and all that comes with it.
Who was responsible for the Great Pyramid of Giza?
female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade
One of the most powerful pharaohs, built a lot of stuff
Name three Egyptian deities
Osiris, Horus, Isis
Cheif god of Egypt was......
What was the controversial decision made by Akhenaten?
He converted Egypt to monotheism... It did not go well.
What is the Rosetta Stone?
A big stone with different languages on it that helped to translate many other hieroglyphics
What and where was Nubia?
East African trading empire that developed south of Egypt on the Nile River
Geographically, what makes India special?
Separated on all sides by mountains and the ocean
What was the importance of the Khyber Pass?
Way into india
Where did India's first settlements arise?
What were to major cities on the Indus River?
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
How do we know that these civilizations traded with other people?
Evidence of stuff from other places showing up there
What is assimilation?
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
a single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything
the religious and moral duties of Hindus
good or bad deeds
The wheel of rebirth or reincarnation; the this-worldly realm in which rebirth occurs.
Founder of Hinduism
there is none
Two major holy texts of Hinduism
Founder of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
The central teachings of Buddhism; to live is to suffer; suffering is caused by desire; the cessation of suffering can be achieved; the solution is the Noble Eightfold Path.
the path of life followed by Buddhists to reach nirvana
most honored Maurya emperor, Chandragupta's grandson. Converted to Buddhism, rejected violence and resolved to rule by moral example.
Golden Age of India
one of India's greatest writers
Gupta Dynasty made contributions to.....
Medicine, Astronomy, Math
The first civilizations of China were built along which river?
first chinese dynasty
On the internet I found xia and shang and i don't know which one is right and I'm too lazy to figure it out.
Mandate of Heaven=
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
system to run centralized gov't, comprised of educated scholar-gentry
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Highest point of China (economy strengthened)
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
What made the geography of Greece different from the river valley civilizations?
It was mountainous, rocky and isolated. This lead to poli that were very independent.
What was the focus of Spartan culture?
a system of government in which a small group holds power
What was the focus of Athenian culture?
Education and learning
Who was Draco?
Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense
Who was Solon?
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
What was the Persian War?
Persia wanted to punish Athens for its aid to Ionia; Delian League alliances formed in case they come back causing Athens to get rich; Persia is not successful
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
Sparta and its allies (Corinth)
a war fought between athens and sparta
How did the Peloponesian war leave Athens
Destroyed and easily conquerable
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece. He lead the reconstruction of Athens
of or relating to or characteristic of Greece or the Greeks
the blending of Greek cultures with those of Persia, Egypt, and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great
Who was Alexander the Great?
A macedonian leader who had a huge empire reaching into persia and beyond
father of greek tragedy
one of the great tragedians of ancient Greece
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey
the ancient greek known as the father of history
Ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War
Athenian sculptor who supervise the building of the Parthenon. butil a statue of zeus at olympia was one of the seven wonders of the world
"Founder of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today.
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem
Cause of the Peloponnesian war
Sparta was unhappy because Athens was becoming too powerful
Winner of the Peloponnesian war
(Roman mythology) supreme god of Romans
(Roman mythology) queen of the Olympian gods who protected marriage
Greek god of light
(Roman mythology) virgin goddess of the hunt and the moon
goddess of wisdom and war
goddess of love
a member of the aristocracy
an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic
Rome's first code of laws
one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Decline of the Roman republic
corrupt politcis undermined the functions of the senate, increasing income gap forced the poor into challenging the decisions of the gov't, carthage continually challenged the Roman borders and chisled away lands from roman control
200 year period of peace in Rome.
Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity
one of the more perverse emperors, who began massive execution of Christians to deflect suspicions that he burned most of Rome's residential section
"Romanized"and organized the empire- built bridges, roads, and aqueducts, ruled during the height of the Pax Romana, Built Hadrians Wall across Britain, strengthened borders
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
What is the status of Jesus in Christianity
Council of Nicea
This was a council of Christian bishops; the first effort to have a council assembling the Christian faith.
any important early teacher of Christianity or a Christian missionary to a people
Paul the apostle
(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles
an ancient Roman road in Italy extending south from Rome to Brindisi
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
a Roman poet
Decline of the Roman Empire
weak government, increased inflation, political disorder, little trade
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
What did the Roman Empire initially think about Christianity? How did their opinion change over time?
They did not accept it and persecuted the christians. Eventually, they converted to christianity
The capital of the Byzantine Empire, easily defended because of its location. It was a hub for trade between the east and the west
the Byzantine Emperor who developed Justinian's code, built the Hagia Sophia, and walls
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
A period of division within the Catholic Church in which there was a pope and an antipope. Caused by a dissagreement over whether icons were right
Helped devise an alphabet to represent the sounds of Slavic languages
Where was the Mayan civilization?
Modern day Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico.
Key mayan products
based upon god of maize and god of the sun
Mayan religious values
Earth, Sky, Underworld
Location of the Aztec Civilization
Arid valley in central Mexican basin
Capital of Aztec civilization
Tenochtitlan. City along lake texococo
Aztec economy was based on....
Location of the Incan Civilization
Modern Peru, Ecuador, Chile
Japan is an __________ or a mountainous chain of islands
Japan is separated from the Asian mainland by the ____ ___
East Sea (or sea of Japan)
Japan is culturally influenced by
Korea and China
The native religion of Japan and is completely unique to Japan and in practice most often mixes with buddhism and the two are often practiced as one religion. Originally, the Japanese emporer was worshipped as part of the faith.
Reverence of Ancestors
Love and worship of nature
Who was the founder and greatest prophet of Islam?
Mohamed (sorry if I spelled that wrong)
What is a Bedouin
A member of a specific nomadic tribe from the arabian peninsula
What is the muslim holy text?
Koran or Qu'ran
How did the Arabic language help to unify early communities of Muslims?
To read the Koran, you had to speak Arabic, so all muslims were connected by the common language
Five Pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
What is the importance of the Hajj?
It is a pilgrimage to Mecca that all muslims must perform if they are physically and monetarily able.
What are the two main sects of Islam?
Sunni and Shia
What modern day nations are dominated by Shia Islam?
Iran and Iraq
How did trade help Islam spread?
Muslim merchants took the beliefs to new places
How did Arabic help the Arab Empire grow?
It unified the people because everyone had to learn it.
headed by the 4 rightly guarded caliphs (prince ali was the last)
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
established by Muawiya, moved capital from Medina to Damascus, that action split Islam (Shi'ites & Sunnites)
Battle of Tours
France v. Arabs
France won and stopped the spread of islam into much of europe
Built a new capital at Baghdad. They had a golden age and had many scholars.
Dome of the rock
1001 arabian nights
Collection of tales put together from Persian stories. Painted an exciting tale of life at the height of the empire.
who was al-kwharizmi?
The famous Islamic scientist and philosopher who organized the medical knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs into the Canon of Medicine
triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind. invented by arabs
route across the sahara desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading
famous leader of mali
A large city that was the capital of Mali. Lots of money and stuff
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
trading center, and powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia
What does the name Great Zimbabwe mean?
Great stone ruins
Who were the mongols?
a group of invaders
wars between Christians and Muslims over claim to the Holy Land
the black plague
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351. Also known as the Black Death.
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Lots of ______ and ___________ during the renaissance
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Leonardo da vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era
The black plague caused the population of Europe to ________
decrease by about a third
How did the black plague affect the European economy?
There was a dramatic decrease in the workforce.
How did the plague affect the catholic church?
decline in influence even though many turned to the church
decline in influence because the priests also were doctors so many of them contracted the plague
Secular authority increased
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
How did the plague start its spread?
Asian merchants accidentally brought infected rats and fleas to Sicily, from there, it spread all over Europe.
What made the renaissance in northern europe different from the renaissance that started in Italy?
Northern europe= humanism and learning, but did not completely throw out religion
Italy etc.= humanism and learning, but more of a resistance to the church
What happened in the first crusade?
Pope Urban II told the christians that all of their sins would be forgiven if they drove the Muslims out of the "Holy Land"
The christians took over Jerusalem and set up colonies
What happened in the second crusade?
Christians lost much and failed to regain it.
What happened in the third crusade?
Richard the lion-hearted led european kings against the muslim leader Saladin
Saladin won and allowed the christians and jews into jerusalem
What happened in the fourth crusade?
The christians went back but didn't go all the way to jerusalem, but stopped in Constantinople and pilaged
This weakened the byzantine empire
People who were among the first to master ironworking, meaning they could make the strongest weapons of the time. They also used the chariot, a wheeled, horse-drawn cart used in battle which allowed soldiers to move quickly around a battlefield and fire arrows at their enemy.
Sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
the piece of land given from a wealthy landowner to a vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
An ancient Low German tribe, that settled in Britain, which came to be called Engla-land (Angleland or England).
a group of germanic people who migrated to Britain
One of the barbarian group known as Hungarian nomads.
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor
What two Spanish leaders drove the moors out of Spain?
Ferdinand and Isabella
Holy Roman Emperor and Charles I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united
What Russian leader drove the Mongols out of Russia?
Ivan the terrible
What title did Ivan give himself?
lending money at interest
The church opposed this
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Who wrote the praise of folly?
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
What is the definition of "renaissance"?
tower used to call Muslims to prayer