Forensics Final Review

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Holy crap this'll be hard oh god.

Serology

The study of antigen-antibody reactions

Type B blood contains ____ antigens and anti-______ antibodies

B antigens, Anti-A antibodies

Blood can be characterized as being of human origin by the _____ test

precipitin

Hair is an appendage of the skin, growing out of an organ known as the

hair follicle

A minimum collection of ____ full-length pubic hairs is recommended to cover the range of characteristics present in this region of the body

24

Alcohol is absorbed into the blood from the _____ & _____

Stomach, small intestines

In the case of ____, the Supreme Court ruled that the taking of nontestimonial evidence, such as a blood sample, was not in violation of a suspect's Fifth Amendment rights

Schmerber v. California

The single most important instrument for comparing bullets is the

comparison microscope

It (is, is not) proper to insert a pencil into the barrel when picking up a crime scene gun.

is not.

A _____ is any impression caused by a tool coming into contact with another object

tool mark

Current methods for identifying a shooter rely on the detection of ____ residues on the hands

primer

All loops have how many deltas?

One

the most important consideration in handling a weapon is

safety

The diameter of the gun barrel is known as its

caliber

A halo of vaporous lead (smoke) deposited around a bullet hole is normally indicative of a discharge _____ to _____ inches from the target.

12, 18

Restoration of serial numbers is possible because in the stamped zone the metal is placed under a permanent stain that extends beneath the original numbers. (T/F)

True

A wear pattern can impart _____ characteristics to a shoe

individual

A system of identification of individuals by measurement of parts of the body

Anthropometry

The image produced from a digital file is composed of numerous square electronic dots called

pixels

Fingerprints/impressions left on a soft material

Plastic

The first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by

Alphonse Bertillon

The simplest of all fingerprint patterns is the

Plain arch

Arches (have, have no) type lines, deltas, or cores

have no

The largest category (25%) in the primary classification system is (1/1, 1/2)

1/1

The three general patterns of fingerprints are:

Arch, Loop, Whorl

A permanent scar will form int he skin only when an injury damages the

dermal papillae

High-intensity light sources known as ____ have proven to be effective in developing latent fingerprints.

Alternate light sources

The fingerprint classification system used in most English-speaking countries was devised by

Sir Edward Richard Henry

Used for developing latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as metal and plastic

Super Glue Fuming

One test method for locating powder residues involves transferring particles embedded on the target surface to chemically treated photographic paper. (True/False)

True

Firings with all types of ammunition can be detected by hand swabbings with nitric acid. (True/False)

False

A cartridge case (can, cannot) be individualized to a single weapon

Can

Cartridge cases are best marked at the base of the shell. (True/False)

False

A shotgun has a ____ barrel

Smooth

The diameter of a shotgun barrel is expressed by the term

gauge

The _____ is the original part of the bore left after rifling grooves are formed

land

Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood can be classified by its

type

Fluid portion of unclotted blood

Plasma

Type A individuals have ____ antigens located at the surface of their red blood cells

A

It is the presence or absence of the ____ and ____ anti-gens on the red blood cells that determine a person's blood type in the A-B-O system.

A, B

Serum contains proteins known as _____, which destroy or inactivate antigens.

antibodies

Describes the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody

Agglutination

Type AB blood has (both, neither) anti-A and/nor Anti-B.

neither

Observable characteristic of an individual

Phenotype

Genes that influence a given characteristic and are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair are known as

alleles

The amount of alcohol present in the blood (is, is not) directly proportional to the concentration of alcohol in the brain.

is

The body fluids ____ and ____ are both desirable for toxicological examination of a living person suspected of being under the influence of a drug.

Blood, urine

The amount of carbon monoxide present in blood is usually expressed as

percent saturation

Silver nitrate is present in a breathalyzer ampoule as a ______ to speed up the rate of reaction

catalyst

Water having a pH value (less, greater) than 7 is basic

greater

Any object that contains handwriting or typescript and whose source or authenticity is in doubt is referred to as a

questioned document

In the case of _____, the Supreme Court held handwriting to be nontestimonial evidence not protected by Fifth Amendment privileges.

Gilbert v. California

Currently, voices analyzed by the sound spectrograph have been widely accepted as evidence in U.S. courts (True/False)

False

The ____ was first developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1941.

sound spectrograph

_____ writings are partially visible impressions appearing on a sheet of paper underneath the one on which the visible writing was done.

Indented

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