Physics Second Semester Final

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B

Crystals are______.
A. a specific kind of mineral
B. an orderly arrangement of atoms in a substance
C. a type of glass
D. a random arrangement of atoms in a substance

C

Density is defined as______.
A. length divided by volume
B. length divided by time
C. mass divided by volume
D. mass times acceleration
E. none of the above

C

which has more density, a bushel of apples or 10 bushels of apples?
A. 1 bushel
B. 10 bushels
C. both have the same density

A

which has more density, a loaf of bread just after it comes out of the oven or the same loaf that has been squeezed into a small volume?
A. the squeezed loaf
B. the fresh loaf
C. they both have the same density

D

the density of a steel rod is determined by the _____.
A. mass of the rod
B. length of the rod
C. volume of the rod
D. spacing between atoms in the rod

C

when a solid block of material is cut in half, its density is_____.
A. doubled
B. halved
C. unchanged

B

compared to the density of a kilogram of feathers, the density of a kilogram of lead is_____.
A. less
B. more
C. the same

A

if the mass of an object were to double while its volume remained the same, its density would____.
A. double
B. halve
C. stay the same

A

if the volume of an object were to double while its mass stayed the same, its density would______.
A. halve
B. double
C. stay the same

C

a block of iron is heated in a furnace, where it consequently expands. In the expanded condition, its density is____.
A. more
B. the same
C. less

A

a 1612 kg metal block has a density of 4979 kg per cubic meter and an approximate volume of _____.
A. .32 cubic meters
B. 3.09 cubic meters
C. 4.98 cubic meters
D. 1.61 cubic meters
E. none of the above

A

when used horizontally in construction, an I-beam is nearly as strong as a solid bar because _____.
A. tension and compression are predominantly in the top and bottom parts
B. of the effects of scaling
C. it is perpendicular to gravity
D. the I-beam weighs less

C

The existence of crystals in many solids was not discovered until _____ became a tool of research in the twentieth century.
A. Hooke's law
B. scaling
C. x-rays
D. gamma rays

B

Steel is used in construction girders because it is an excellent ____ material
A. inelastic
B. elastic
C. neither A or B--elasticity does not matter in construction girders

C

less force is required to poke through an eggshell from the____.
A. outside in
B. force is the same in both directions
C. inside out

D

which geometrical shape has the least surface area for a given volume?
A. pyramid
B. cube
C. cylinder
D. sphere

C

if all dimensions of a square house were to double, its floor area would go up by a factor of ____.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 8
E. 16

D

if an ant were scaled up to the size of an elephant, the ant would be _____.
A. much stronger than the elephant
B. weaker than the elephant, but able to run around
C. of the same strength as the elephant
D. too weak to even lift itself off the ground

C

the main reason an elephant has big ears is so it can___.
A. live longer
B. hear better
C. cool off by radiating more heat

B

which has more skin per body weight, an elephant or a mouse?
A. the elephant
B. the mouse
C. Neither--they both have the same amount of skin per body weight

B

The reason falling heavy objects hit the ground faster than falling light objects is that heavy objects____.
A. have more air resistance
B. have a smaller ratio of surface area to weight
C. accelerate faster than light objects
D. all of the above
E. none of te above

B

which will cool a glass of water faster, ice cubes or the same mass of crushed ice?
A. the cubes
B. the crushed ice
C. neither--they will both cool the water at the same rate

B

Bob is making taffy apples. If he bus 100 kg of small apples rather than 100 kg of large apples, he will need____
A. the same amount of taffy
B. more taffy
C. less taffy

A

which cooks faster in boiling oil?
A. a sliced potato
B. a whole potato
C. both cook at the same rate

B

suppose all sizes of potatoes are selling at the same price per kilogram. For a given amount of money, you will have a greater mass of potatoes after the are peeled if you buy
A. small potatoes
B. large potatoes
C. medium potatoes
D. a mixture of sizes

B

if in making cupcakes you bake them as directed for a cake, you will find the cupcakes ____
A. under baked
B. over baked
C. baked properly

A

in cold weather, your hands will be warmer if you wear____
A. mittens
B. gloves
C. either A or B--there is no difference

A

If each dimension of a steel bridge is scaled up ten times, its strength will increase by____
A. 100, but its weight by 1000
B. 1000, and its weight by 100
C. 10, and its weight by 10 also
D. none of the above

E

if all dimensions of a house were doubled, its volume would go up by a factor of____
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 6
E. 8

B

the weight density of an object is its mass divided by its weight
A. true
B. false

A

elasticity is the property an object has that allows it to return to its original shape after being deformed
A. true
B. false

A

the elastic limit of an object is reached or surpassed when the object doesn't return to its original shape after being stretched
A. true
B. false

A

scaling is the study of how size effects the relationship among weight, strength, and surface area
A. true
B. false

A

because cells obtain nourishment through their surfaces, there is an upper limit on the size of a living cell
A. true
B. false

A

because of the consequences of scaling, science fiction monsters like King Kong cannot exist
A. true
B. false

A

rock samples are made of regular geometric shapes called crystals
A. true
B. false

B

when you squeeze a loaf of bread, both its mass and its density decrease
A. true
B. false

A

when a weight on the end of a hanging spring is doubled, the spring normally stretches twice as much
A. true
B. false

B

the stretch of a spring is inversely proportional to the applies force
A. true
B. false

B

in solid sodium chloride (also known as table start), the sodium ions and the chloride ions are arranged randomly
A. true
B. false

C

Water in a tube could be used to make a barometer, but__
A. water would run out of the tube
B. no glass is strong enough to hold a water barometer
C. the tube would have to be very, very long
D. pressure at the tube's bottom would break the tube

B

most hand pumps used in wells rely on _____
A. sucking action
B. atmospheric pressure
C. Boyle's law
D. Archimedes' Principle

D

the reason water can be pumped out of a well using an old-fashioned farm-type pump is that the ____.
A. water level is very close to the pump
B. pump scoops up the water and lifts it to the top
C. pump sucks the water up from the well
D. water is pushed to the surface by the atmosphere

C

an aneroid barometer is an instrument used to measure___
A. liquid pressure
B. well pressure
C. atmospheric pressure

D

an aneroid barometer works by using ____
A. a long column of mercury
B. a long column of water
C. an altimeter
D. a small metal box with a partial vacuum in it

A

about how high can water theoretically be lifted by a vacuum pump at sea level?
A. 10.3 m
B. less than 10.3 m
C. more than 10.3 m

B

If you squeeze a balloon to one half its original size, the pressure inside___.
A. increases by a factor of 4
B. increases by a factor of 2
C. stays the same
D. decreases by a factor of 2
E. decreases by a factor of 4

E

the air in your classroom has____
A. mass
B. weight
C. energy
D. temperature
E. all of the above

B

which has more weight, a balloon filled with helium or the same balloon filled with air
A. the helium balloon
B. the air balloon
C. neither--they have the same weight

A

a balloon is buoyed up with a force equal to the ____
A. weight of air it displaces
B. density of surrounding air
C. atmospheric pressure
D. weight of the balloon and contents

C

a bubble of air released from the bottom of a lake___.
A. rises to the top at constant volume
B. becomes smaller as it rises
C. becomes larger as it rises
D. alternately expands and contracts as it rises

B

a 1-ton dirigible hovers in the air. the buoyant force acting on it is ____.
A. zero
B. 1 ton
C. less than 1 ton
D. more than 1 ton

A

as a high-altitude balloon sinks lower and lower into the atmosphere its ____
A. volume decreases
B. density decreases
C. weight decreases
D. mass decreases
E. none of the aboe

C

a helium-filled balloon released into the atmosphere will rise until ___.
A. the pressure inside the balloon equals atmosphere pressure
B. atmospheric pressure on the top and bottom of the balloon are equal
C. the balloon's density equals atmospheric density
D. the balloon can no longer expand

A

when a river narrows, the water in the river flows____
A. faster
B. slower
C. at the same rate

B

on a windy day, atmospheric pressure ____.
A. increases
B. decreases
C. remains unchanged

E

Bernoulli's principle says that ____
A. as volume of a gas increases at constant temperature, the pressure decreases
B. as volume of a gas increases at constant temperature, the pressure increases
C. an object in air is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of air it displaces
D. internal fluid pressure increases as the fluid speed increases
E. internal fluid pressure decreases as the fluid speed increases

B

Bernoulli's principle really comes from ____.
A. conservation of momentum
B. conservation of energy
C. buoyant force considerations
D. the definition of acceleration
E. the definition of pressure

A

which has more lift, a heavy plane flying at a low speed or a light plane with the same size wings flying at a high speed?
A. the heavy plane
B. the light plane
C. neither--they both have the same lift
D. more information is needed to say

C

an umbrella tends to move upward on a windy day because ____.
A. air gets trapped under the umbrella and pushes it up
B. buoyancy increases with increasing wind speeds
C. a low pressure area is created on top of the umbrella
D. the wind pushes it up

A

which temperature scale labels the freezing point of water at 0 degrees?
A. Celsius
B. Fahrenheit
C. Kelvin
D. Caloric

C

heat is the ____
A. total amount of energy contained in an object
B. average amount of energy-per-molecule contained in an object
C. energy transferred between objects because of a temperature difference
D. amount of energy all the molecules have

A

internal energy is the ____
A. total amount of energy contained in an object
B. average amount of energy contained in an object
C. amount of energy that is transferred from one object to another object
D. amount of kinetic energy all the molecules have

D

Heat is measured in ____
A. Calories
B. Kilo-calories
C. Joules
D. all of the above

C

the energy content of a piece of food is normally determined by_____
A. measuring the volume of the food
B. eating the piece of food
C. burning the food

B

some molecules are able to absorb large amounts of energy in the form of internal vibrations and rotations. materials composed of such molecules would have___
A. low specific heat capacities
B. high specific heat capacities

E

Specific heat capacity is related to the amount of internal energy ____
A. a specific object has
B. one molecule contains
C. transferred by one molecule
D. transferred by one object
E. needed to change the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree

A

which has the higher specific heat capacity, water or sand?
A. water
B. sand
C. they both have the same specific heat capacity

B

when an iron ring is heated, the hole becomes ____
A. smaller
B. larger
C. neither smaller nor larger

B

during a very cold winter, water pipes sometimes burst. the reason for this is____
A. the ground contracts when colder, pulling pipes apart
B. water expands when freezing
C. water contracts when freezing
D. the thawing process releases pressure on the pipes
E. none of the above

A

a bimetallic strip will bend when heated because___
A. each metal expands at different rates
B. metals bend when heated
C. each side of the strips is at a different temperature
D. metals contract when heated

B

the reason fish live from year to year in ponds that freeze over in the winter is that ____
A. fish are cold-blooded and can stand being frozen and thawed
B. water below the ice is 4 degrees above freezing
C. fish swim so fast they keep the water from freezing under the surface
D. fish hibernate during the winter

B

which is denser, ice at 0 degrees C or water at 4 degrees C
A. the ice
B. the water
C. they both have the same density

A

the fact that desert sand is very hot in the day and very cold at night is evidence that sand has a ____
A. low specific heat capacity
B. high specific heat capacity

B

the largest extremes in temperature are usually experienced_____
A. near the oceans
B. in the middle of a continent
C. on islands
D. in Japan
E. near large coastal cities like San Franciso

A

which, at the same temperature, will cool slower on a hot day?
A. watermelon
B. dry beans
C. bread
D. potatoes
E. all will cool at the same or similar rates

E

pressure in a liquid depends on the _____
A. depth of the measuring liquid
B. mass of the liquid
C. volume of the liquid
D. density of the liquid
E both A and D

B

where is the pressure greater, one meter beneath the surface of Lake Michigan or one meter beneath the surface of a pond?
A. in lake Michigan
B. the pressure is approximately the same in both places
C. in the pond

B

water pressure on a submerged object is greatest against the____
A. corners of the object
B. bottom of the object
C. sides of the object
D. top of the object
E. none of the above

A

Archimedes' principle says that an object is buoyed up by a force that is equal to the ____
A. weight of the fluid displaced
B. mass of the fluid displaced
C. mass of the object

A

the reason objects immersed in a fluid experience an upward buoyant force is because fluid pressure on the bottom of the object is greater than fluid pressure on the top of the object
A. true
B. false

D

the reason a life jacket helps you float is that ____
A. the jacket repels water
B. the jacket makes you weigh less
C. the jacked has the same density as an average human
D. you and the jacket together have density less than your density alone

B

lobsters live on the bottom of the ocean. The density of a lobster is _____
A. equal to the density of seawater
B. greater than the density of seawater
C. less than the density of seawater

D

the density of a submerged submarine is about the same as the density of____
A. iron
B. a crab
C. a floating submarine
D. water
E. none of the above

B

an egg is placed at the bottom of a bowl filled with water. Salt is slowly added to the water until the egg rises and floats. from this experiment, one can conclude that ___
A. buoyant forces do not always act upward
B. the density of salt water exceeds the density of the egg
C. salt sinks to the bottom
D. calcium in the eggshell is repelled by sodium chloride
E. none of the above

A

if an object has a density equal to the density of water, it will____
A. sink
B. neither float nor sink, but stay anywhere it is put
C float

A

if an object has a density equal to the density of water, it will____
A. neither float nor sink, but stay anywhere it is put
B. sink
C. float

C

the reason an iron ship doesn't sink is that____
A. iron is less dense than water
B. air inside decreases its weight
C. the iron displaces more water than it would if it were in a solid block
D. an iron ship will always sink

C

when first put in water, a plastic toy boat will sink until___(hint: the boat will float)
A. it displaces a volume of water equal to its own volume
B. the water density equals the density of the boat
C. it displaces a weight of water equal to its own weight

B

compared to an empty ship, the same ship loaded with plastic foam will float____
A. at the same level in the water
B. lower in the water
C. higher in the water

B

two equal sized buckets are filled to the top with water. one of the buckets has a piece of wood floating in it, making its total weight____
A. more than the weight of the other bucket
B. equal to the weight of the other bucket
C. less than the weight of the other bucket

B

when a boat sails from fresh water to salt water, the boat will float____
A. at the same level
B. higher in the salt water
C. lower in the salt water

C

if the part of an iceberg that extends above the water were removed, the ____
A. density of the iceberg would change
B. iceberg would sink
C. iceberg would rise
D. pressure on the bottom of the iceberg would increase

C

there is a legend of a Dutch boy who bravely held back the Atlantic Ocean by plugging a leak near the top of a dike with his finger until help arrived. Which of the following is most likely?
A. the force on his finger would have been huge, but the pressure very small
B. this is impossible because of the large size of the Atlantic Ocean
C. the force on his finger would have been less than 1 N
D. both the force and pressure on his finger would have been very large

A

when you float in salt water compared to floating in fresh water, the buoyant force that supports you is ____
A. the same
B. greater
C. less

B

Pascal's principle says that changes in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid____
A. remain only at the point
B. are transmitted to all points in the fluid
C. quickly diminish from point to point in the fluid
D. are transmitted only to points below it
E. are transmitted only to points close to it

E

a hydraulic press works because ____
A. liquids transmit pressure undiminished
B. one piston is larger than the other piston
C. Pascal's principle is operating
D. liquids transmit pressure in all directions
E. all of the above

C

in a hydraulic press operation, it is impossible for the ____
A. force output to exceed the force input
B. output displacement to exceed the input displacement
C. energy output to exceed the energy input
D. none of the above

B

an industrial container holds 100 N of water. the area of the inside bottom of the container is 2 square meters. What pressure does the water exert of the bottom of the container?
A. 0.02 N per square meter
B. 50 N per square meter
C. 100 N per square meter
D. 400 N per square meter
E. none of the above

A

suppose a stone weighs 8 N in the air, but in water it weighs only 5 N. what is the buoyant force acting on the stone?
A. 3 N
B. 5 N
C. 8 N
D. 13 N
E. 16 N

E

a 40,000 N car is lifted on a hydraulic piston of area 1000 square centimeters. How much force on a 10 square-centimeter piston is needed to lift the car?
A. 40,000 N
B. 10,000 N
C. 8,000 N
D. 4,000 N
E. 400 N

B

pressure in a liquid depends on the direction the pressure gauge is pointing
A. true
B. false

A

the upward force that a liquid exerts on a submerged or partly submerged object is called buoyant force
A. true
B. false

A

An object will sink in water if its density is greater than the density of water
A. true
B. false

A

The weight of fluid displaced by a floating object is equal to the weight of the of the object
A. true
B. false

B

pressure in a fluid is inversely proportional to the depth at which the pressure measurement is taken
A. true
B. false

A

the buoyant force on a submerged rock depends on the volume of the rock
A. true
B. false

B

because iron is much denser than water, a ship made of iron won't float
A. true
B. false

C

evaporation takes place when matter changes from a
A. solid to a liquid
B. solid to a gas
C. liquid to a gas
D. gas to a liquid
E. gas to a solid

C

evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is
A. a cooling process also
B. neither a warming nor cooling process
C. a warming process

A

to say that evaporation is a cooling process means that when evaporation occurs,
A. the remaining liquid cools
B. the evaporation vapor cools
C. both A and B
D. none of the above

B

pigs roll in the mud
A. to thermally insulate themselves
B. too keep their skin wet so evaporation can occur
C. because the darker color of mud makes them warmer
D. none of the above

A

condensation occurs when matter changes a
A. gas to a liquid
B. solid to a gas
C. solid to a liquid
D. liquid to a gas
E. gas to a solid

A

on which day will the amount of water vapor in the air be greater, a summer day at 100% humidity or a winter day at 100% humidity?
A. the summer day
B. the winter day
C. neither--at 100% humidity they both hold the same amount of water

D

clouds form when warm air
A. expands
B. rises
C. chills
D. all of the above
E. none of the above

A

at high altitudes, the boiling point of water____ than the boiling point at sea level
A. is lower
B. stays the same
C. is higher

C

the reason pressure cookers cook food faster is that they
A. boil water faster
B. raise the boiling point of water
C. raise the cooking temperature of the food

E

freezing occurs when matter changes from a
A. solid to gas
B. solid to a liquid
C. gas to a solid
D. liquid to a gas
E. liquid to a solid

B

when water freezes, it
A. absorbs energy
B. gives off energy
C. neither give off nor absorbs energy

C

steam burns are more damaging than burns caused by boiling water because steam
A. is a vapor of water molecules
B. has a higher temperature than boiling water
C. has more energy per kilogram than boiling water
D. occupies more space than water
E. none of the above

C

as atmospheric pressure increases, the boiling temperature of a liquid
A. is 100 degrees C
B. decreases
C. increases
D. remains unchanged

B

the cooling effect inside a refrigerator is produced by
A. compressing the refrigeration gas into a liquid
B. vaporizing the refrigeration liquid
C. an electric motor that converts electrical energy into thermal energy
D. proper insulation
E. none of the above

B

food cooked in boiling water in the mountains cooks more slowly than cooked at sea level. If the temperature under the pot is increased, the food will cook
A. slower
B. at the same rate as before
C. faster

D

if you want to cook boiled eggs while in the mountains, you should
A. not boil eggs, because the water temperature won't get hot enough to cook them
B. boil the eggs for a shorter time
C. use a hotter flame
D. boil the eggs for a longer time

A

when water vapor condenses on the inside of a window, the window becomes
A. slightly warmer
B. neither warmer nor cooler
C. slightly cooler

C

melting snow
A. neither warms nor cools the surrounding air
B. warms the surrounding air
C. cools the surrounding air

D

morning dew on the grass is a result of
A. evaporation of water
B. air pressure on water vapor
C. the open-structure form of water crystals
D. slow-moving molecules condensing on the grass
E. none of the above

C

which will melt a bigger hole in a block of ice--a red hot nail tossed on it or a red hot piece of wood of the same mass and temperature
A. nail
B. either will do the same amount of melting
C. wood

D

ice is put in a cooler to cool the food stored there. In order to speed up the cooling process, you should
A. drain the ice water from the cooler periodically
B. wrap the ice in newspaper
C. light a small fire under one end, causing air currents to form
D. crush the ice
E. keep the ice and food well separated

C

in order to walk barefoot on hot coals without harming your feet, less energy would get to your feet if your feet were
A. either wet or dry--it makes no difference
B. dry
C. wet

A

a liquid is cooled if
A. evaporation exceeds condensation
B. condensation exceeds evaporation
C. evaporation and condensation proceed at equal rates
D. condensation occurs at twice the rate of evaporation

C

if you take a shower in a steamy bathroom and then go to your bedroom to dry off, why will you feel colder in your bedroom?
A. because water evaporation off of your skin, your skin will be warmer
B. because water condenses on your skin, your skin will be warmer
C. because water evaporates off of your skin, your skin will be cooled
D. because water condenses on your skin, your skin will be cooled

C

to make freez-dried coffee, you would spray drops of coffee into a vacuum chamber so that
A. the water would boil off, which would warm the water even further
B. the water would freeze, which would condense the water even further
C. the water would boil off, which would cool the coffee until if freezes. once it freezes, any remaining water molecules would evaporate
D. the water would freeze, which would cool the coffee until it boils. once it boils, any remaining water molecules would evaporate

D

heat transfer by conduction in metals occurs when
A. atoms give off heat in the form of electromagnetic waves
B. large numbers of atoms move from place to place
C. electromagnetic waves travel from one place to another through a vacuum
D. electrons bump into atoms and other electrons
E. none of the above

B

plastic foam is a good heat
A. conductor
B. insulator
C. emitter
D. absorber
E. all of the above

E

the reason you can hold your fingers beside a candle flame without getting hurt is that
A. air convects heat well
B. hot air rises
C. air is a poor heat conductor
D. hot-air convection currents travel upward
E. all of the above

B

heat travels from the sun to Earth by
A. conduction
B. radiation
C. convection
D. insulation
E. vacuumization

D

energy transfer by convection is primarily restricted to
A. gases
B. liquids
C. solids
D. fluids
E. none of the above

C

if a volume of air is warmed, it expands. if a volume of air expands, it
A. neither warms nor cools
B. warms
C. cools

C

a good absorber of radiation is
A. a good reflector
B. a poor emitter of radiation
C. a good emitter of radiation
D. none of the above

A

a good reflector of radiation is
A. a poor absorber of radiation
B. a good absorber of radiation
C. a good emitter of radiation
D. none of the above

D

if you were caught in freezing weather with only a candle for heat, you would be warmest in
A. a tent
B. a wooden house
C. a car
D. an igloo

C

the reason light-colored clothes help keep you cool in warm weather is that clothes of light color
A. weigh less
B. have a lot of spaces in them
C. reflect a lot of energy
D. absorb energy, leaving little to pass through
E. all of the above

A

which cools at the faster rate, a pot of boiling water left at room temperature or a pot of lukewarm water the same size left at room temperature?
A. the boiling water
B. the lukewarm water
C. neither--the cooling rate is the same for both

A

newton's law of cooling says that the rate of cooling depends on
A. the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings
B. the volume of an object
C. the mass of an object
D. the specific heat capacity of an object
E. all of the above

B

a cup of hot coffee will cool faster if it
A. has cream in it
B. is black

B

radiation from the sun gets trapped in Earth's atmosphere. The reason for this is that
A. radiation from the sun comes in at an angle to Earth
B. long-wavelength radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere
C. radiation from the sun gets reflected from Earth's atmosphere
D. the atmosphere allows only visible light to enter
E. the atmosphere allows only visible and infrared light to enter

B

a piece of metal will feel colder than a piece of wood at the same temperature. Why?
A. metals, in general, have a higher specific heat capacity than wood
B. metals, in general, are good heat conductors
C. metals are colder than wood
D. wood, in general, is a poor insulator
E. metal atoms are moving more slowly, on the average, than wood atoms

A

two pots are filled with boiling water. The pots are exactly the same size, but one pot is white and the other is black. Which pot cools faster?
A. the black pot
B. the white pot
C. neither--they both cool at the same rate

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