French Revolution and Napolean

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Ideals of the French Revolution

Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity (nationalism/patriotism)

The Estate System (Ancient Regime)

1st Estate: The Clergy, 2nd Estate: The Nobility, and 3rd Estate: Everyone Else

1st Estate: The Clergy

- 1% of the population
- Owns 20% of all land
-Exempt from taxes
-Collect taxes from the peasantry (10% of their yearly income)

2nd Estate: The Nobility

-2% of the population
-Owns 25% of all land
-Become extremely powerful after Louis XIV
-Monopolize the best positions in the government and church
-Don't pay ANY taxes
-Can tax peasants for their own personal profit

3rd Estate: Everyone Else

Many different people but all united in their shared legal status which was much lower than the Clergy and Nobility

Bourgeoisie

the "upper-middle" class

Manorial rights

the rights that the noblemen had over their manor- they can do whatever they want in terms of taxing and such in his manor (they are legally given)

Estates General

- a legislative body in pre-revolutionary France made up of representatives from each of the three estates
- each of the reps of the estates have one vote ( this was not fair because the 3rd estate was so large in comparison to the 1st and 2nd)

Causes of the French Revolution: Short Term

The financial crisis forces the king to convene the Estates General

Causes of the French Revolution: Long Term

-Rising debt
- Rising cost of bread
- Separation of estates (1st and 2nd did not pay taxes)
-Bad Harvest

Calonne's reform ideas

- Calonne is the finance minister appointed by Louis XVI
- He realizes that they need to tax the nobility in order to help repair the economy
-He also wants to sell church land and establish a universal tax
- The nobles hate his ideas so he is forced to call the Estates General in

The Leadership of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

- They were basically the worst leaders ever
- There were a lot of issues going on in France but they paid no attention to what their country said- they caused people to starve

The National Assembly

-The first French revolutionary legislature; a constituent assembly made primarily of representatives of the 3rd estate and a few nobles and clergy
- in session from 1789-1791

The Tennis Court Oath

- Event in which the delegates of the 3rd estate were locked out from the hall and pledged that they would not disband until a new constitution had been written
- June 20, 1789

Reforms of the National Assembly

- the abolition of feudalism- this destroys the unfair noble privileges
-The Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789)
- Secularization of the Church

The Taking of the Bastille

-July 14th, 1789
- The bastille is stormed because the people want to seize the weapons in order to protect themselves against the army

The Great Fear

- summer of 1789
- the fear of vagabonds and outlaws that seized the French countryside and fanned the flames of the revolution
- peasants began to revolt and they were successful- the National Assembly ends up abolishing noble feudal priviledges

October Days ( March on Versailles)

-October 5, 1789
- women marched to Versailles to protest the price of bread
- forcing the king and his family to live in paris rather than remain isolated

The Sans-Cullotes

- The laboring poor of France
- they demand radical political actions for their daily bread
- the mountain joined with them and achieved power

Women's role in the Revolution

-They arranged the October days and March on Versailles in order to protest the price of bread and lack of leadership
- They were most affected by the shortage of bread because that was their role in the family

Abolition of Feudalism (1789)

Destruction of Priviledge

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)

- inspired from ideas of the Enlightenment
- wants to preserve unalienable rights
- says that the problem is that the government does not acknowledge the rights of man, and therefore there is a bad governement

The Jacobins

Extreme radicalists

Robespierre

- a young provinicial lawyer and delegate
- leads the committee of Public Safety
- Attempts to create a "Republic of Virtue"

The Republican (Revolutionary) Calendar

They changed the calendar so that it was not based on religion- it was really confusing- it celebrated society instead of religion

The Reign of Terror

- 1793-1794
- When Robespierre used revolutionary terror to soldify the home front of France; many were killed
- Ends only when Robespierre is executed a la guillotine

Guillotine

the accepted way of execution during the French Revolution

Thermidorian Reaction

the period after the execution of Robespierre in 1794; reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror

Napolean (Rise and Fall)

- he is able to take control very easily because the current government was so corrupt
- he crowns himself emperor and grants universal male suffrage
- created the concordat
- does a lot of expansion but is defeated at waterloo

Civil or Napoleonic Code

- Created by Napoleon, favored man
- introduces in France but as he takes over more countries he puts it in everywhere he goes
- destroys local customs which creates more nationalism after awhile

The concordat

- 1801
- Guarantees worship for Catholics and other religions
- the pope is given more discipline
- Basically, Napoleon establishes religious freedom

Continental System

- Napoleon consolidates power in france and then he tries to control the economy but Britain is too good- he cant defeat them in battle; so, he decided to attack them economically by not allowing their goods to be bought- it doesn't work because they need British exports
- attempt to subdue Britain with economic blockage

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