Roman Architecture

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two major contributions to roman architecture

Arch, Concrete

Three manipulations of the arch

Barrel vault-simplest/groin vault (double barrel), Arcade-arches side by side, dome-arch spun 360 degrees

What was the concrete made of?

lime, volcanic ash, sand, and stone

Most of these were in urban areas

Temples

Triumphal arches

built for emperors, war heroes-older ones have 3 arches

Arch of Titus

81 AD brother built it for him

Arch of constantine

312-315 AD (has 3 arches)

Arc di Triomphe

Located in Paris 1806-36 for napoleon

Arcade

Multiple arches together

Aqueduct

carried water long distances. engineering marvel, 11 served rome,150 gal. a day

Emperor Claudius

helped build 2 aqueducts, had a stutter and a limp

where did the water from the aqueducts go?

Kings and nobles, public drinking, and the public bathes

Cloaca Maxima

Where the sewage from the cities went

The Colosseum

first known as the Flavian Ampitheatre, 80 arches

Ground level of the colosseum

Doric columns

2nd level of the colosseum

Ionic columns

3rd level of the colosseum

Corinthian

4th level of the Colosseum

Engaged Corinthian-columns built into the walls

velarium

large canopy used to to cover/shade the colosseum, took 1000 men to raise

Vomitoria

colosseum's exits

The Pantheon

temple built by Hadrean, 120-127 AD

oculus

the eye of the pantheon, opening at the top of the pantheon, sun shined on a different god throughout the day

coffers

140 of them on the pantheon, made of poured concrete

Marcus Agrippa

receives most of the credit for the pantheon, name is on the front

two prototypes of christian buildings

The Basilica-Latin cross plan; the central plan-greek cross plan

Basilica

originally a civic building for gov't purpose-- examples: basilica of constantine, and old st.peters c. 333

Central plan church

dome, ex: the pantheon

the purpose of the baths

meeting place, hygiene, holy spas, for everyone

baths of Caracalla

built by emperor caracalla to try and cleanse his sins, around 212-216 AD, had hot and cold pools, shopping centers

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