PHYSIC FINAL EXAM

117 terms by gandhmay 

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Terms from the Physics Exam Study Guide, Geeks of the Weeks, and units. Just tell me if any corrections need to be made!

percent error

[(experimental value - actual value) ÷ actual value] × 100

inverse

one goes up, the other goes down

direct

one goes up, the other goes up; one goes down, the other goes down

relationship

how two things relate or connect to each other

circuit

a continuous path for electron motion that has a wire, EMF source, and resistor

charge

Definition:amount of electrons
Symbol: c
Unit: Coulombs (c)

static electricity

buildup of charge on a surface

conductor

a substance that allows electrons to move freely

insulator

a substance that does not allow electrons to move freely

EMF

the pull from protons to the electrons (electromotive force)

EPD

difference in charge (electric potential difference)

voltage

Definition: a push or pull of electrons
Symbol: V
Unit: Volts (V)

current

Definition: speed of electrons through the wire
Symbol: I
Unit: Amps (A)

resistance

Definition: an object that slows down electrons
Symbol: R
Unit: Ohms (Ω)

Ohm's law

Voltage = Current x Resistance (V = IR)

schematic

a diagram of a circuit

grounding wire

a wire that goes directly to the ground for safety reasons

series

a circuit with one pathway and one or more resistors

parallel

a circuit with one or more pathways and one or more resistors

ammeter

measures current and must always be connected in series

voltmeter

measures voltage and must always be connected in parallel

circuit breaker

a fuse with an ammeter, shuts off circuit when current gets to high

fuse

one time only use, metal snaps and breaks the circuit

switch

controls the flow of electrons(open - no electrons flow or closed - electrons flow)

acceleration

how much something speeds up each second

constant speed

acceleration = 0, Fnet = 0

speed

distance traveled in a certain time

distance

how far somethings travels

velocity

speed in a given direction

magnitude

the number in a vector

direction

the way that something travels

vector

a number with a direction

scalar

a number with units

SOHCAHTOA

math formula to determine a side when given a side and an angle

force

Definition: a push or pull
Symbol:F
Unit: Newtons (N)

inertia

an objects tendency to resist change in motion/direction

Newtonian pair

two things pulling on each other with the same force

mass

amount of matter in an object

weight

force due to gravity

gravity

force that pulls everything to the earth

force of motion

the largest pull in a direction

force applied

the force acted upon an object

force of friction

a force working in opposition to the force of motion

free body diagram

diagram showing the forces applied to an object

axes

sides of a graph

graph title

y axis vs x axis

power

amount of energy used over a given time

energy

anything that causes motion

work

energy spent

potential energy

energy stored within an object

kinetic energy

energy of motion

wavelength

the distance between two points of a wave

period

the time it takes to complete a full wave cycle

amplitude

the distance from the middle of the wave to the crest/trough

medium

the stuff surrounding something

pitch

frequency in sound waves

intensity

amount of energy

volume

amplitude in a sound wave

prism

a triangular object that bends light

Doppler effect

when the source of a sound is closer, the frequency gets higher (inverse relationship)

transverse

medium is moving perpendicular to the wave

frequency

number of crests that pass a point per time interval

longitudinal

medium is moving parallel to the wave

rarefaction

light hits and bounces back at a different wavelength

sonic boom

when an object is going faster than the speed of sound and creates a condensation/Mach cone

Mach number

speed of object ÷ 331 (speed of sound)

resonance

a solid object's ability to amplify a frequency

retina

surrounds vitreous, acts like a camera film

cone

process color and fine detail

rod

process light and side vision

cornea

clear covering helps focus light

optic nerve

sends signals from photoreceptors to the brain's visual center

vitreous

thick jelly in the center of the eye

macula

center of the retina, most photo receptor cells

iris

colored part of eye that reacts to amount of light, may contract or dilate.

pupil

central circular opening in the colored part of the eye

stirrup, hammer, anvil

three small bones, help amplify and transfer sound to the inner ear

auditory nerve

sends the electrical impulses to the brain

tympanic membrane

located in the middle ear at the end of the auditory canal, also called eardrum

cochlea

converts the vibrations into electrical impulses that are then sent to the auditory nerve

auditory hairs

vibrations cause these hair cells to move, which creates nerve signals that are then sent to the brain

outer ear

outside of the ear

ear canal

first destination of sound waves, closest to outer ear

Albert Einstein

Major Contribution: won Nobel Prize in 1921 for the photoelectric effect
Fun Fact: came up with the special theory of relativity

Alessandro (Giusseppe Antonio Anastasio) Volta

Major Contribution: credited with the development of the first modern battery (Voltaic pile)
Fun Fact: was made a Count by Emperor Napoleon

Georg Simon Ohm

Major Contribution: Ohm's law (V = IR)
Fun Fact: spent most of his life as a high school teacher

James Gaius Watt

Major Contribution: credited with partly starting the industrial revolution
Fun Fact:improved the steam engine

Charles Kao

Major Contribution: invented the fiber optic cable
Fun Fact: considered "father of broadband technology"

Heinrich Hertz

Major Contribution: first person to broadcast and receive a radio wave
Fun Fact: the measure of frequency (Hertz) was named in his honor

Ernst Mach

Major Contribution:determined that the speed of sound depends on the medium, temperature of medium can affect speed
Fun Fact: his other work included wave particle physics and inertia of stars

Christian Doppler

Major Contribution:discovered the Doppler effect
Fun Fact:was born into a family of stonemasons but was to weak for manual labor

Henry Cavendish

Major Contribution:determined the universal constant for gravity (9.8 m/s²)
Fun Fact:discovered hydrogen but it wasn't named

Isaac Newton

Major Contribution: universal gravitation and Newton's laws of motion
Fun Fact:first scientist to be buried at Westminster Abbey

Roentgen

Major Contribution:discovered x-rays

Carl Sagan

Major Contribution:brought the most complex scientific subjects to the mainstream through his writing
Fun Fact:first person to artificially produce ATP

Johannes Kepler

Major Contribution:first person to explain how planets orbit the sun
Fun Fact: determined Christ's birthday

Rube Goldberg

Major Contribution:drew cartoons that inspired the building of the first Rube Goldberg machines
Fun Fact: had a Civil Engineering degree for UCSF

acceleration due to gravity (Earth)

9.8 m/s²

speed of sound in air

331 m/s

slope of a graph

x axis ÷ y axis

meter (m)

distance (unit)

second (s)

time (unit)

joule (J)

energy (unit)

newton (N)

force (unit)

watt (w)

power (unit)

volt (v)

voltage (unit)

kilogram (kg)

mass (unit)

meters per second

velocity (unit)

meters per second per second (m/s²)

acceleration (unit)

coulomb (c)

charge (unit)

amp (a)

current (unit)

dollar ($)

cost (unit)

Ohm (Ω)

resistance (unit)

percent (%)

percent error (unit)

Hertz (Hz)

frequency (unit)

KiloWattHour (KWH)

energy (unit) (only to determine electrical energy)

decibel (dB)

amplitude (unit)

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