# PHYSIC FINAL EXAM

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Terms from the Physics Exam Study Guide, Geeks of the Weeks, and units. Just tell me if any corrections need to be made!

### percent error

[(experimental value - actual value) ÷ actual value] × 100

### inverse

one goes up, the other goes down

### direct

one goes up, the other goes up; one goes down, the other goes down

### relationship

how two things relate or connect to each other

### circuit

a continuous path for electron motion that has a wire, EMF source, and resistor

### charge

Definition:amount of electrons
Symbol: c
Unit: Coulombs (c)

### static electricity

buildup of charge on a surface

### conductor

a substance that allows electrons to move freely

### insulator

a substance that does not allow electrons to move freely

### EMF

the pull from protons to the electrons (electromotive force)

### EPD

difference in charge (electric potential difference)

### voltage

Definition: a push or pull of electrons
Symbol: V
Unit: Volts (V)

### current

Definition: speed of electrons through the wire
Symbol: I
Unit: Amps (A)

### resistance

Definition: an object that slows down electrons
Symbol: R
Unit: Ohms (Ω)

### Ohm's law

Voltage = Current x Resistance (V = IR)

### schematic

a diagram of a circuit

### grounding wire

a wire that goes directly to the ground for safety reasons

### series

a circuit with one pathway and one or more resistors

### parallel

a circuit with one or more pathways and one or more resistors

### ammeter

measures current and must always be connected in series

### voltmeter

measures voltage and must always be connected in parallel

### circuit breaker

a fuse with an ammeter, shuts off circuit when current gets to high

### fuse

one time only use, metal snaps and breaks the circuit

### switch

controls the flow of electrons(open - no electrons flow or closed - electrons flow)

### acceleration

how much something speeds up each second

### constant speed

acceleration = 0, Fnet = 0

### speed

distance traveled in a certain time

### distance

how far somethings travels

### velocity

speed in a given direction

### magnitude

the number in a vector

### direction

the way that something travels

### vector

a number with a direction

### scalar

a number with units

### SOHCAHTOA

math formula to determine a side when given a side and an angle

### force

Definition: a push or pull
Symbol:F
Unit: Newtons (N)

### inertia

an objects tendency to resist change in motion/direction

### Newtonian pair

two things pulling on each other with the same force

### mass

amount of matter in an object

### weight

force due to gravity

### gravity

force that pulls everything to the earth

### force of motion

the largest pull in a direction

### force applied

the force acted upon an object

### force of friction

a force working in opposition to the force of motion

### free body diagram

diagram showing the forces applied to an object

sides of a graph

y axis vs x axis

### power

amount of energy used over a given time

### energy

anything that causes motion

energy spent

### potential energy

energy stored within an object

energy of motion

### wavelength

the distance between two points of a wave

### period

the time it takes to complete a full wave cycle

### amplitude

the distance from the middle of the wave to the crest/trough

### medium

the stuff surrounding something

### pitch

frequency in sound waves

amount of energy

### volume

amplitude in a sound wave

### prism

a triangular object that bends light

### Doppler effect

when the source of a sound is closer, the frequency gets higher (inverse relationship)

### transverse

medium is moving perpendicular to the wave

### frequency

number of crests that pass a point per time interval

### longitudinal

medium is moving parallel to the wave

### rarefaction

light hits and bounces back at a different wavelength

### sonic boom

when an object is going faster than the speed of sound and creates a condensation/Mach cone

### Mach number

speed of object ÷ 331 (speed of sound)

### resonance

a solid object's ability to amplify a frequency

### retina

surrounds vitreous, acts like a camera film

### cone

process color and fine detail

### rod

process light and side vision

### cornea

clear covering helps focus light

### optic nerve

sends signals from photoreceptors to the brain's visual center

### vitreous

thick jelly in the center of the eye

### macula

center of the retina, most photo receptor cells

### iris

colored part of eye that reacts to amount of light, may contract or dilate.

### pupil

central circular opening in the colored part of the eye

### stirrup, hammer, anvil

three small bones, help amplify and transfer sound to the inner ear

### auditory nerve

sends the electrical impulses to the brain

### tympanic membrane

located in the middle ear at the end of the auditory canal, also called eardrum

### cochlea

converts the vibrations into electrical impulses that are then sent to the auditory nerve

### auditory hairs

vibrations cause these hair cells to move, which creates nerve signals that are then sent to the brain

### outer ear

outside of the ear

### ear canal

first destination of sound waves, closest to outer ear

### Albert Einstein

Major Contribution: won Nobel Prize in 1921 for the photoelectric effect
Fun Fact: came up with the special theory of relativity

### Alessandro (Giusseppe Antonio Anastasio) Volta

Major Contribution: credited with the development of the first modern battery (Voltaic pile)
Fun Fact: was made a Count by Emperor Napoleon

### Georg Simon Ohm

Major Contribution: Ohm's law (V = IR)
Fun Fact: spent most of his life as a high school teacher

### James Gaius Watt

Major Contribution: credited with partly starting the industrial revolution
Fun Fact:improved the steam engine

### Charles Kao

Major Contribution: invented the fiber optic cable
Fun Fact: considered "father of broadband technology"

### Heinrich Hertz

Fun Fact: the measure of frequency (Hertz) was named in his honor

### Ernst Mach

Major Contribution:determined that the speed of sound depends on the medium, temperature of medium can affect speed
Fun Fact: his other work included wave particle physics and inertia of stars

### Christian Doppler

Major Contribution:discovered the Doppler effect
Fun Fact:was born into a family of stonemasons but was to weak for manual labor

### Henry Cavendish

Major Contribution:determined the universal constant for gravity (9.8 m/s²)
Fun Fact:discovered hydrogen but it wasn't named

### Isaac Newton

Major Contribution: universal gravitation and Newton's laws of motion
Fun Fact:first scientist to be buried at Westminster Abbey

### Roentgen

Major Contribution:discovered x-rays

### Carl Sagan

Major Contribution:brought the most complex scientific subjects to the mainstream through his writing
Fun Fact:first person to artificially produce ATP

### Johannes Kepler

Major Contribution:first person to explain how planets orbit the sun
Fun Fact: determined Christ's birthday

### Rube Goldberg

Major Contribution:drew cartoons that inspired the building of the first Rube Goldberg machines
Fun Fact: had a Civil Engineering degree for UCSF

9.8 m/s²

331 m/s

x axis ÷ y axis

distance (unit)

time (unit)

energy (unit)

force (unit)

power (unit)

voltage (unit)

mass (unit)

velocity (unit)

### meters per second per second (m/s²)

acceleration (unit)

charge (unit)

current (unit)

cost (unit)

### Ohm (Ω)

resistance (unit)

### percent (%)

percent error (unit)

frequency (unit)

### KiloWattHour (KWH)

energy (unit) (only to determine electrical energy)

amplitude (unit)

Example: