|point of view||A writers choice of narrator, first person/narrator/third person.|
|first person POV|| The story is told by a character in the story.|
Only the character's own feelings,thoughts, and actions are revealed. Limited POV. Pronouns such as I, me, we, and us are used.
|third person POV||The story is told by outside observer.The thoughts and feelings of any character in the story can be revealed.Pronouns such as he, she, they, him, her, and them are used.The author is telling about the characters.|
|third person limited||We are told the thoughts and feelings of only one character by an outside observer.|
|third person omniscient||we are told everything about the story by an outside observer, including the thoughts and feelings of all the characters, and even information in the author's mind which no character knows.|
|author's perspective||a unique combination of ideas, values, feelings, and beliefs that influence the way a writer looks at a topic.tone, or attitude toward a topic, often reveals author's perspective.|
|exposition||introduces the setting and characters.|
|rising action||introduces obstacles that make the conflict more complicated.|
|climax||the turning point in the story and the moment of greatest suspense.|
|falling action||reveals the outcome of the story's climax, eases the tension.|
|resolution||reveals the story's final outcome, ties up any loose ends.|
|conflict||struggle between opposing forces.|
|external conflict||a struggle between a character and an outside force.|
|internal conflict||a struggle that takes place within the character's own mind (inner thoughts) as he or she makes decisions or faces a fear.|
|integral setting||essential to the plot;it influences action, character, or theme.|
|backdrop setting||is relatively unimportant to the plot.|
|protagonist||is the main character in a story. the story often revolves around this character.|
|antagonist||is the force or character who opposes the protagonist.|
|dynamic character||changes as a result of the events of the story.|
|static character||changes very little.|
|round character||have good and bad qualities, tend to be more realistic, their goals, ambitions, and values change.|
|flat character||have one or two striking qualities.|
|characterization||the way a writer reveals the personality of a character, often the most important aspect of a story.describing the character's physical appearance presenting the character's thoughts, feelings, actions presenting the thoughts, words, and actions of other characters having the author comment directly on the character.|
|motivation||any force (i.e. love, fear, jealousy) that drives the character to behave in a particular way.|
|theme||a message or life lesson brought out by the action of a story.|
|narrator||the voice that tells the story.|
|mood||the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for readers. can be described as exciting, somber, terrifying, cheerful, carefree.|
|biography||story of a person's life told by someone else written in third person POV.|
|autobiography||story of a person's life, but it is told by that person and is written from the first-person POV.|
|memoir||a narrative that reveals experiences within the author's lifetime. But memoirs are typically less formal, less encompassing, less obsessed with factual events and, alternatively, center their primary focus around a mood or attitude toward a particular section of one's life.|
|irony||is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is.|
|verbal irony||The contrast between what is said and what is actually meant.|
|situational irony||This refers to a happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended.|
|dramatic irony||This occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know.|
|sarcasm|| -is one kind of irony; |
-it is praise which is really an insult;
-sarcasm generally involves malice, the desire to put someone down, e.g., "This is my brilliant son, who failed out of college.
|satire|| -is making fun of something |
-is the exposure of the vices or follies of an individual, a group, an institution, -an idea, a society, etc., usually with a view to correcting it. Satirists frequently use irony.
|stereotype||a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.|
|symbolism|| Use of a simple object to stand for a larger concept or idea.|
• peace - dove, olive branch, victory sign.
• United States - Uncle Sam, flag, stars and stripes, shield.
• Democrats - donkey.
• Republicans - elephant.
• money - dollar bill or dollar sign.
|allusion||a reference to a famous or important person, place, thing, or work of literature|
|analogy||Comparison between two unlike things that share a common characteristic|
|hyperbole|| is an obvious and unrealistic exaggeration:|
- "He was frightened out of his wits."
|caricature||exaggerating a physical feature or habit: big nose, bushy eyebrows, large ears, baldness.|
|understatement|| is the opposite of hyperbole: "It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain." —J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye the representation of something as less than it really is, for ironic effect.|
Example: The government needs to address the small problem of poverty.
|puns||a variety of a usually humorous play on words involving;the multiple meanings of an expression, or two expressions that sound similar.|
|argument||a carefully stated position on an issue which includes claim which is supported by reasons and evidence.|
|claim||a writer's position on a problem or an issue which is stated directly or implied..|
|support||the reasons and evidence that help to prove a claim which can include facts, statistics, anecdotes (personal stories), examples, or quotations from experts.|
|counterargument||anticipates what people with opposing viewpoint might say and counters their objection by offering further evidence to support the claim.an argument made to disprove or answer another viewpoint.|
|overgeneralization||a statement that is too broad to be accurate which often include words such as all, everyone, or no one.|
|fact||a statement that can be proved through a personal observation, and eye witness account, reliable source, a scientific experiment, or a discussion with an expert.|
|opinion||cannot be proved because it expresses a belief, feeling, or thought|
|single-cause fallacy||Suggests only one cause for something when there are actually several causes|
|persuasive techniques||methods used to convince a person to act or think in a certain way.|
|appeals by association||"Sell" a product or an idea by linking it with something or someone positive or influential.|
|bandwagon||taps into people's desire to belong to a group.|
|snob appeal||taps into people's desire to feel superior to others.|
|testimonial||relies on the backing of a celebrity, an expert, or a satisfied customer.|
|transfer||connects a product, a candidate, or a cause with a positive image or idea.|
|appeal to values ethical appeals||tries to gain moral support for a claim by linking the claim to widely accepted value.|
|emotional appeals||uses strong feelings, rather than facts and evidence, to persuade.|
|appeal to pity||taps into people's compassion for others.|
|appeal to fear||makes people feel as if their safety, security, or health is in danger.|
|appeal to vanity||uses flattery to win people over.|
|loaded language||relies on words with strongly positive or negative words.|
|words with positive association||bring to mind something exciting, comforting, or desirable.|
|target audience||audience that share certain features, such as age, gender, ethnic background, values, or lifestyles.|
|form||the way a poem looks on a page.|
|sound devices||use of words for their connection to the sense of hearing.|
|rhyme||the repetition of sounds at the ends of words.|
|rhythm|| the beat you hear as you read a poem, the stressed and unstressed syllables of a word|
and can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.
|alliteration||the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.|
|onomatopoeia||Words that sound like what they mean. Words such as pop, crackle, snap, whizz, buzz, zing, etc.|
|speaker|| Like a narrator in a story, a voice that "talks" to the readers. |
not necessarily the poet.
usually you have to infer the speaker's identity and personality using details from the poem.
|imagery||Creating pictures through words by appealing to the senses (sights, smells, sounds, tastes, textures ), usually done with figurative language.|
|simile||a comparison between two unlike things that includes the word like or as.|
|metaphor||a comparison between two unlike things that does not include the word like or as.|
|personification||a description of object, an animal, or ideas as if it were human or had human qualities and reactions.|
|tone||The poet's attitude toward the subject. It can usually be described with a single word, such as humorous, respectful, or sarcastic.created by using words and details to describe the subject and by creating a speaker, or voice that tells the poem.|
|free verse|| the form does not contain regular patterns of rhythm, rhyme, or line length.|
sounds conversational;a more modern type of poetry.
|rhyme scheme||A pattern established by the arrangement of rhymes in a line or stanza.|
|assonance||Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry.|
|consonance||Similar to alliteration except the repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words.|
|lyric poem||a short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts and feelings.|
|refrain||A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.|