Chemistry is the study of "stuff"--its properties, structure, and reactions with other matter.
Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects.
The parts are the electrons, protons, and neutrons.Electrons are the negatively charged particles of atoms.Neutrons are the particles on an atom that have a neutral charge. They aren't positive like protons. They aren't negative like electrons
Compounds are groups of two or more elements that are bonded together.
Types of bonds
There are two main types of bonds that hold those atoms together, covalent and electrovalent/ionic bonds. Covalent compounds happen when the atoms share the electrons, and ionic compounds happen when electrons are donated from one atom to another.
polarity refers to a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule having an electric dipole.Polar molecules can bond together due to dipole-dipole intermolecular forces between one molecule (or part of a large molecule) with asymmetrical charge distribution and another molecule also with asymmetrical charge distribution.
is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, like nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine (thus the name "hydrogen bond", which must not be confused with a covalent bond to hydrogen). The hydrogen must be covalently bonded to another electronegative atom to create the bond.
Props of Water
: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. Gases may dissolve in liquids, for example, carbon dioxide or oxygen in water. Liquids may dissolve in other liquids. Gases can combine with other gases to form mixtures, rather than solutions.[
when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water, i.e. a pH less than 7.0. is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept hydrogen ions. Bases are also the oxides or hydroxides of metals.gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity lower than that of pure water, i.e. higher than pH 7.0 at standard conditions.is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. It has the property that the pH of the solution changes very little when a small amount of acid or base is added to it. Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications.
is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
that describes the amount of work that can be performed by a force, an attribute of objects and systems that is subject to a conservation law.
law of conservation of mass & energy
states that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant. A consequence of this law is that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.is that the mass of a closed system will remain constant over time, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. A similar statement is that mass cannot be created/destroyed
is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.[
conditions for chemical reactions
External conditions that affect reactions are usually types of energy that are put into a reaction, such as heat or light.
are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Nearly all known enzymes are proteins. However, certain RNA molecules can be effective biocatalysts too.
factors affecting enzymes
The enzyme-substrate complex undergoes an internal change that forms the productThe enzyme-substrate complex undergoes an internal change that forms the product