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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. How does the US-Japan Alliance take part in the Japan-China security dilemma?
  2. What are the effects of this dichotomy of values?
  3. How was the US considered intolerant of diversity by Chinese theorists?
  4. What does a state's desire to go nuclear depend on for Solingen?
  5. What is the essence of regionalism and what are its three components?
  1. a By basing themselves in Japan, and defending Japan from potential enemies, the Americans take away any justification for a re-armament of Japan. This prevents a security dilemma between Japan and China from spiralling out of control. However, by asking for a more active Japanese role in the Alliance, the Americans may actually cause instability.
  2. b Based on on-going cost benefit calculations by the ruling coalition, because of the importance she attaches to regional dynamics and nuclear neighbourhoods. A widely subscribed to non-proliferation norm in the region may have a reinforcing effect on the nuclear calculus of individual states. Likewise, regional predominance of inward-looking models and a propensity for nuclear weapons adventurism may lead states that, for political and economic reasons, would have preferred nuclear weapons abstinence to tilt toward the regional centre of (proliferation) gravity. Thus, a state with an outward-looking ruling coalition may pursue nuclear weapons should these outward-oriented elites perceive extreme external threats and calculate that the political benefits of economic integration and nu-clear restraint no longer outweigh those of going nuclear.
  3. c --The essence of regionalism, regardless of how extensive its economic interdependence is, is its sense of shared community. The three aspects of this shared community are 1) the social networks that bridge national boundaries; 2) strategic thinking that recognizes common security interests; and 3) a regional identity capable of overriding national identities on matters of shared significance.
  4. d --a) It distorts the cultural diversity of Asia.
    b) It denies the appeal of universal values in the region.
    c) It blurs the line between socialism and Confucianism in Chinese values, and ignores the strong resistance across East Asia to China's civilizational arguments.
  5. e --It espoused a single set of universal values for everyone regardless of their cultural backgrounds, regardless of the existence of a long-standing set of Eastern values. (this propaganda about Eastern values was first used by the Japanese when they started their imperial campaign in 1895; before that, there are no records or mention of an Eastern way).

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Cold War logic is applicable to new proliferant countries, i.e. 3rd World leaders are rational actors who fear 2nd strike retaliation.
    Deliberate wars are less likely to occur. However, accidental wars are more likely to occur. (The latter is not part of optimistic proliferation.)
  2. a. It is very flexible and thus would have a high success rate—in so far as success can be measured by willingness to enter into agreements and cooperate with one another.
    b. It is highly unpredictable, as there are as of yet neither safeguards, nor any concrete obligations. Such unpredictability will ultimately cause each party to act more cautiously about reductions than they would have under a more traditional regime of arms control.
  3. Traditional arms control theory was based on the premise that the superpowers inherently shared an area of common ground (avoiding nuclear war), and that this element of mutual interest could serve as the basis for limited, cooperative arrangements involving reciprocal restraint in the acquisition of weapons of mass distraction. So the common interests are avoidance of war, minimizing the costs and risks of the arms competition, and curtailing the scope and violence of war in the event it occurs.
  4. a. Little was.
    i. Clinton and Yeltsin agreed to retarget nuclear missiles on open areas of the ocean, rather than on targets in Russia and the US, so as to avoid a horrible catastrophe in case of an accident.
    ii. The US-Russian Joint Data Exchange Center in Moscow
    1. To prevent false alarms, misjudgements, and accidents as Russia's ballistic missile early warning system slowly decayed. It should be noted however that this measure has still not come into effect. This is perhaps because Russia withdrew from support of this program.
    iii. START III was attempted but quickly failed.
  5. -- Taiwan has not been permitted to participate
    -- Beijing has insisted that internal Chinese affairs not be on the agenda, effectively blocking ARF discussion of cross-strait tensions despite their obvious broad regional implications.

5 True/False Questions

  1. According to Snyder, according to Mearsheimer, what is the main goal of states according to defensive realists? Or, less playfully, what does Mearsheimer claim is the main goal of states for defensive realists? Why?-- The international structure provides states with little incentive to seek additional increments of power; instead it pushes them to maintain the existing balance of power. Preserving power, rather than increasing it, is the main goal of states. (Mearsheimer)
    -- In anarchy, security is the highest end. Only if survival is assured can states safely seek such other goals as tranquillity, profit and power. The first concern of states is not to maximise power but to maintain their positions in the system (Waltz)
    -- Defensive realists contend that the primary goals that states seek to achieve are survival and security. Therefore, power is a tool for achieving the goal of security, and not a goal in itself.


  2. When is buck passing preferable to balancing and vice versa?It is a treaty—or rather a grand bargain—between the nuclear weapons states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapons states (NNWS). NNWS, in return for not pursuing a nuclear weapons program, are rewarded with aid from developed countries towards the acquisition of civilian nuclear power programs and related support. The NPT also adds that in return for such a pledge from NNWSs, the NWSs will "one day" get rid of their own nuclear weapons and themselves become NNWSs too.
    b. It is the largest agreement so far ratified, with all but three countries (Pakistan, India, and Israel) taking part in it, and only one country so far having reneged it.
    c. In being so universally ratified, the NPT can be seen as the heart of arms control. The health and status of the NPT therefore can represent the health and status of arms control as a whole: Where and when the NPT is weak, so too is arms control in general; when and where it is strong, so too is arms control in general.


  3. How is the dominant power in a hierarchy not an informal empire?-- The contrast with informal empire is important - in informal empire, the puppet governments collaborate with the imperial power against the wishes of the populace.
    -- In hierarchy, independent sovereign nations accept the central position of the largest power in the system but are fully functional on their own terms.


  4. How is the anarchy of the international system considered seen in a positive light by Realists?Cold War logic is applicable to new proliferant countries, i.e. 3rd World leaders are rational actors who fear 2nd strike retaliation.
    Deliberate wars are less likely to occur. However, accidental wars are more likely to occur. (The latter is not part of optimistic proliferation.)


  5. With the end of the Cold War, what has been the main agenda of ASEAN?a. Combating the proliferation of WMDs;
    b. Closing gaps in the international non-proliferation regime by creating coalitions of states to intercept and interdict air, ground, and sea transportation of WMDs;
    c. Addressing new threats from non-state actors;
    d. Depending on bilateral and multilateral initiatives for results


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