5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- What are NICs? How does Hyman make use of this concept?
- Why was the Zangger Committee formed?
- What is Hyman's thesis?
- In light of the failure of the Baruch plan, what steps were made towards disarmament?
- For Constructivists, how does international change result?
- a Leaders who see their nations in starkly "us against them" terms are labelled "oppositional," in contrast to those "sportsmanlike" leaders who see the world in a less dichotomous light. Leaders who regard their nations as equal or superior to the external "other" are referred to as "nationalists," while those who have a lower regard for their nations' international standing are known as "subalterns." This matrix yields four ideal-type NICs: sportsmanlike nationalists, sportsmanlike subalterns, oppositional nationalists, and oppositional subalterns. Hymans makes use of this concept by arguing that irrational, emotional actors are responsible for the big decision of nuclear proliferation and other leader types are not predisposed to pursue nuclear weapons.
- b a. It was formed to extend the NPT's requirements to the exporting practices of countries. It did so by creating "trigger lists." These were lists of materials that could be used to create a nuclear weapons program. Any item on the "trigger list" that was being exported would require the NPT safeguards to be applied to the recipient facility.
- c "International change results from the work of intellectual entrepreneurs". On the one hand, intellectual entrepreneurs attempt to convert people to new ideas. On the other hand, they condemn actors whose behaviour is different from standards. (Importance of transnational activist networks)
- d According to Hymans, although the non-proliferation regime may have many virtues, the appearance of its success in containing proliferation results mainly from the fact "that few state leaders have desired the things it prohibits". A major determinant of this reticence to pursue nuclear weapons, Hymans explains, is the revolutionary nature of a decision to acquire them, which is recognized as such by all top decision makers. Only leaders who possess a deep-seated "national identity conception" (NIC) of a particular type will acutely perceive the need for the bomb and have the exceptional will-power to take that extraordinary step.
- e a. The radical Baruch plan was changed for more moderate, noncontroversial methods of arms control such as the Nuclear Weapons Free Zones and the Limited Test Ban Treaty. These were successful because of their non-controversiality, but in part from this they did not contribute much to arms control.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- It is a treaty—or rather a grand bargain—between the nuclear weapons states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapons states (NNWS). NNWS, in return for not pursuing a nuclear weapons program, are rewarded with aid from developed countries towards the acquisition of civilian nuclear power programs and related support. The NPT also adds that in return for such a pledge from NNWSs, the NWSs will "one day" get rid of their own nuclear weapons and themselves become NNWSs too.
b. It is the largest agreement so far ratified, with all but three countries (Pakistan, India, and Israel) taking part in it, and only one country so far having reneged it.
c. In being so universally ratified, the NPT can be seen as the heart of arms control. The health and status of the NPT therefore can represent the health and status of arms control as a whole: Where and when the NPT is weak, so too is arms control in general; when and where it is strong, so too is arms control in general.
- --a) South Korea, instead of letting down its guard in regards to N. Korea, is working even closer with the US on the issue.
b) Japan, despite financial crisis is expanding its defence capabilities and working even closer with the US
c) Many states in Southeast Asia have tightened security ties with the US
d) Indo-US ties have also advanced
- Realism was able to explain correctly the situation of the post-9/11 world. Indeed, according to realists the military response of the U.S. to terrorist attacks is understandable. "When a state grows vastly more powerful than any opponent, realists expect that it will eventually use that power to expand its sphere of domination, whether for security, wealth, or other motives."
- a. It deviates from the traditional arms control paradigm;
b. It lacks its own verification provisions, relying instead on the old START provisions;
c. There was no call for any permanence to its reduction measures.
d. The treaty expired almost immediately after the date of expected completion of the provisions by the involved parties
- -- Emphasis on alliances with Japan and South Korea
-- Deepening economic and political relations with China
-- Support for the status quo in the Taiwan Strait
-- A frustrating effort to get North Korea to give up its nuclear weapons
-- An ambivalent attitude toward East Asian regionalism.
5 True/False Questions
How is the Moscow Treaty representative of the new arms control? → a. It is very flexible and thus would have a high success rate—in so far as success can be measured by willingness to enter into agreements and cooperate with one another.
b. It is highly unpredictable, as there are as of yet neither safeguards, nor any concrete obligations. Such unpredictability will ultimately cause each party to act more cautiously about reductions than they would have under a more traditional regime of arms control.
What are the effects of this dichotomy of values? → --a) It distorts the cultural diversity of Asia.
b) It denies the appeal of universal values in the region.
c) It blurs the line between socialism and Confucianism in Chinese values, and ignores the strong resistance across East Asia to China's civilizational arguments.
What problems do emerging nuclear powers in the Third World particularly face according to proliferation pessimists? → a. From conservatives
i. It did nothing to improve the survivability of US retaliatory forces.
1. Remember this was the point Nixon embarked upon serious arms control measures with the USSR in the first place.
ii. SALT II made matters much worse by granting the Soviets unilateral advantages in heavy ICBMs.
iii. SALT II seemed to be unverifiable.
b. From the liberals
i. It did not limit deployed warheads.
ii. Deployed nuclear warheads would grow in number as modern multiple-warhead ballistic missile systems replaced older ones carrying single warheads.
How about the Australia Group? → a. The Soviets suspected it as an underhanded attempt by the US to monopolize nuclear technology, and as a way to invalidate the USSR's veto power in the UN. Before the USSR would subscribe to such a proposal, they demanded that the US complete disarm first.
b. Western Europe too was sceptical of the plan.
c. China, however, was willing to entertain the plan and even brought it to a vote.
What are China's strategic goals in the region? → a. Implementation of its provisions;
b. Verification that all parties are in compliance with its terms.