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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. What steps can China, Japan, and the US take to avert a security dilemma spiralling out of control?
  2. What was the focus of the new Arms Control initiative?
  3. What were the arms control agreements and treaties Nixon was able to make with Brezhnev?
  4. What challenges does the post 9-11 world present to Realism? How does Realism attempt to address these challenges?
  5. With the end of the Cold War, what has been the main agenda of ASEAN?
  1. a Challenge 1: The importance of non-state actors
    Difficulties to explain why the U.S. declared a war against a terrorist organization (al Qaeda)
    Responses of Realists:
    - The "war on terror" has been fought against Afghanistan and Iraq, not non-state actors.
    - The behaviour and motivations of non-state actors can be a strategy to expel powerful states of their homelands
    Challenge 2: The balance of power
    Weaker states are supposed to form an alliance against the stronger state and recreate a balance of power. However, after the cold war the U.S. are the only superpower in the world.
    Responses of Realists:
    - The US don't represent a danger because, the country is geographically far from other countries and its intentions are nonthreatening.
    - Moreover, some scholars consider that resistance in Afghanistan and Iraq constitutes the emergence of a counter-power against the U.S.
  2. b a. Combating the proliferation of WMDs;
    b. Closing gaps in the international non-proliferation regime by creating coalitions of states to intercept and interdict air, ground, and sea transportation of WMDs;
    c. Addressing new threats from non-state actors;
    d. Depending on bilateral and multilateral initiatives for results
  3. c • forced to see itself as part of a bigger security picture, no longer confined just to SE Asia
    • wants to engage China openly in a more 'pacific/global' context through the ARF (ASEAN regional forum)
  4. d Multilateral security regimes are one way to improve transparency and defuse the security dilemma. By participating in a trilateral security forum, the Chinese could reassure their neighbours and establish improved ties. In addition, the Americans have to stay in Japan—finding the balance between getting more Japanese involvement without arousing Chinese suspicions. The Japanese, on the other hand, should apologize for WW2 and do their best to rebuild the region's trust.
  5. e a. The Accidental Measures Agreement
    i. To improve technical safeguards against accidental and unauthorized use of nuclear weapons;
    ii. To notify each other should the risk of nuclear war arise;
    iii. To provide advance notification of missile launches into international airspace or waters
    b. The Incident at Sea Agreement
    i. For both superpowers' navies to follow safe practices when their warships operated in close proximity
    c. The Prevention of Nuclear War Agreement
    i. To avoid confrontations likely to lead to nuclear war;
    ii. If such a crises arose anyway, to consult with each other on ways to solve the differences peacefully.
    d. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Strategic Arms Limitation talks (SALT)
    i. To limit strategic offensive arms

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. • "flying geese" model: Japan set up a hierarchy of finance, production, and technology spreading out from Japan to the countries of E. Asia.
    • created concentric circles of investment throughout Asia
    • unique form of regionalism largely based on private capital and no international political institutionalization
  2. It is a treaty—or rather a grand bargain—between the nuclear weapons states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapons states (NNWS). NNWS, in return for not pursuing a nuclear weapons program, are rewarded with aid from developed countries towards the acquisition of civilian nuclear power programs and related support. The NPT also adds that in return for such a pledge from NNWSs, the NWSs will "one day" get rid of their own nuclear weapons and themselves become NNWSs too.
    b. It is the largest agreement so far ratified, with all but three countries (Pakistan, India, and Israel) taking part in it, and only one country so far having reneged it.
    c. In being so universally ratified, the NPT can be seen as the heart of arms control. The health and status of the NPT therefore can represent the health and status of arms control as a whole: Where and when the NPT is weak, so too is arms control in general; when and where it is strong, so too is arms control in general.
  3. --a) It didn't have to commit itself to a security community or a particular vision for regional identity. It just had to follow (or shape in its own image) the loose guidelines for regional integration set up by the ASEAN way.
    b) Cooperation was centred on economic ties between countries and avoided sovereignty disputes.
    c) It gave China a leading role in diplomacy in the region, particularly regarding the Six Party Talks over the future of N. Korea.
    d) It also gave China to benefit from divisions among its allies
  4. They might lack technological and financial resources. So they are either not able to acquire sufficient secure retaliatory arsenals or not able to control and apply them properly.
  5. Karl argues, that exactly this fact will lead to small and well manageable nuclear arsenals. It will also make counterforce capabilities risky because it might not be sufficient to deliver a decisive blow to the enemies nuclear facilities.

5 True/False Questions

  1. What are some successes the NSG has had?a. They passed created an agreement in which all signatories are required to implement full-scope safeguards as a condition nuclear supply to non-nuclear states;
    b. Nuclear dual-use equipment, material, and technology was better regulated.


  2. What conditions are necessary, according to some, in order for Asia to develop into a security regime?-- Hypothetically, a system with an unequal distribution of power should have more stability, because the relative capabilities will be clearer to all states in the system.
    -- The strong will have no need to fight, and the weak will have no desire to fight.


  3. Why is history―particular the history of its security dynamics before the 20th century―an important factor in the domestic politics of Asian states?Asia carries its own distinctive baggage: with the exception of Japan, China and Thailand, all states were post-colonial constructions (and even these were all heavily penetrated by the super powers)
    • unlike in other areas of the world, the process of decolonization left behind a system that by and large reflected the patters on pre-colonial political history; this carried pre-colonial history forward into post-colonial international relations


  4. Why did the Baruch plan fail?a. The Soviets suspected it as an underhanded attempt by the US to monopolize nuclear technology, and as a way to invalidate the USSR's veto power in the UN. Before the USSR would subscribe to such a proposal, they demanded that the US complete disarm first.
    b. Western Europe too was sceptical of the plan.
    c. China, however, was willing to entertain the plan and even brought it to a vote.


  5. What criticisms did SALT II come under in the Carter administration?a. From conservatives
    i. It did nothing to improve the survivability of US retaliatory forces.
    1. Remember this was the point Nixon embarked upon serious arms control measures with the USSR in the first place.
    ii. SALT II made matters much worse by granting the Soviets unilateral advantages in heavy ICBMs.
    iii. SALT II seemed to be unverifiable.
    b. From the liberals
    i. It did not limit deployed warheads.
    ii. Deployed nuclear warheads would grow in number as modern multiple-warhead ballistic missile systems replaced older ones carrying single warheads.


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