Chemistry Final Review

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What is the study of the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction?

Reaction stoichiometry

What is the maximum possible amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction?

Theoretical yield

If the temperature remains constant, V and P represent the original volume and pressure, and V' and P' represent the new volume and pressure, what is the mathematical expression for Boyle's law?

VP=V'P'

The principle that under similar pressures and temperatures, equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules is attributed to

Avogadro

Standard pressure is exactly

1 atm

To balance a chemical equation, it may be necessary to adjust the

coefficients

What is the measured amount of a product obtained from a chemical reaction?

Actual yield

A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the

mole ratio of any two substances in the reaction

The units of molar mass are

g/mol

Which process can be explained by the kinetic-molecular theory?

Condensation

Which best describes the particles of a liquid compared to those of a gas?

Less random

If one knows the mass and molar mass of reactant A and the molar mass of product D in a chemical reaction, one can determine the mass of product D produced by using the

mole ratio of D to A from the chemical equation.

Which of the following would be investigated in reaction stoichiometry?

The mass of potassium required to produce a known mass of potassium chloride.

V is the original volume, V' is the new volume, T is the original Kelvin temperature and T' is the new Kelvin temperature. How is Charle's law expressed mathematically?

V=(V'T/T')

When the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction is completely used up, the

reaction stops

In what kind of reaction do two or more substances combine to form a new compound?

Synthesis reaction

A chemical reaction involving substances A and B stops when B is completed used. B is the

limiting reactant.

Why does the air pressure inside the tires of a car increase when the car is driven?

The air particles inside the tires increase their speed because their temperature rises.

Which of the following is not correct about crystalline solids?

They are geometrically irregular.

The rate of diffusion in solids is very low because the

particles are not free to move about

According to the kinetic-molecular theory, which substances are made of particles?

all matter

A volatile liquid

evaporates readily

If one knows the mole ratio of a reactant and product in a chemical reaction, one can

calculate the mass of the product produced from a known mass of reactant

The energy of the particles in a solid is

lower than the energy of the particles in liquids and gasses

Which reactant controls the amount of product formed in a chemical reaction?

Limiting reactant

Each of the four types of reaction stoichiometry problems requiers using a

mole ratio

What is the process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container?

effusion

A chemist interested in the efficiency of a chemical reaction would calculate the

percentage yield

By which process do gases take the shape of their container?

Expansion

Why would a camper near the top of Mount Everest find that water boils at less than 100 degrees?

Because there is less atmospheric pressure than at sea level.

An idea gas is a hypothetical gas

That conforms to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory.

Why could the pressure of a sample of gas at a constant volume fall 75mm Hg?

The temperature decreased.

If the temperature of a fixed quantity and volume of gas changes, what also changes?

Pressure

Particles within a solid

Vibrate about fixed positions

After calculating the amount of reactant B required to completely react with A, then comparing that amount with the amount of B available, one can determine the

limiting reactant

the standard molar volume of a gas is all of the following except

dependent upon the size of the molecules.

To correct for the partial pressure of water vapor in a gas collection bottle, the vapor pressure of water at the collecting temperature is generally

subtracted from atmospheric pressure

To determine the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction, one must know the

available amount of each reactant

A chemical equation is balanced when the

same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products

If the temperature of a fixed quantity and volume of gas changes, what alos changes?

Pressure

According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matter are in motion in

solids, liquids, and gases

If the temperature of a liquid-vapor system at equilibrium is reduced, the

concentration of the vapor will decrease

Which of the following is a crystalline solid?

A quartz rock

What is the SI unit of force?

Newton

What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas?

Temperature

The coefficients in a chemical equation represent the

relative number of moles of reactants and products

Two gases with unequal molar masses are injected into opposite ends of a long tube at the same time and allowed to diffuse toward the center. They should begin to mix closer to the end that

holds the heavier gas.

If the temperature of a container of gas remains constant, how could the pressure of the gas increase?

The number of gas molecules in the container increases.

Standard temperature is exactly

zero degrees

What is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%?

percentage yield

At about what temperature does water reach its maximum density?

4 degrees

Forces holding particles together are strongest in a

solid

Suppose that two gases with unequal molar masses were injected into opposite ends of a long tube at the same time and allowed to diffuse toward the center. They should begin to mix

closer to the end that holds the heavier gas

The density of a substance undergoes the greatest change when the substance changes from a

liquid to a gas

Pressure is the force per unit

surface area

Which of the following is an amorphous solid?

Glass

What is the process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container?

Effusion

The kinetic-molecular theory explains the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the energy of the particles and

forces that act between the particles

If a gas with an odor is released in a room, it can quickly be detected across the room because it

Diffuses

Volumes of gaseous reactants and products in a chemical reaction can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers

if constant temperatures and pressure are maintained

Who developed the concept that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of their partial pressures?

Dalton

Which of the following causes particles in a liquid to escape into a gas state?

High kinetic energy

A foam is a colloidal dispersion of

a gas and a liquid

When titrating a strong acid with a strong base, the equivalence point will be

at PH 7

Which of the following is an electrolyte?

Sodium chloride

As temperature increases, solubility of solids in liquids

Usually increases

In the expression "like dissolevs like" the world like refers to similarity in molecular

polarity

Solubilities, expressed as grams/100g of water,

must be determined experimentally

What unknown quantity can be calculated after performing a titration?

Concentration

A substance whose water solution is a good conductor of electricity is a

electrolyte

Enthalpy of solution is generally expressed in

kilojoules per mole of solute at a specified temperature

A substance whose water solution is a poor conductor of electricity is a

non electrolyte

Two immiscible substances

Will not form a solution

What is the approximate freezing point depression of nonvolatile aqueous electrolyte solutions?

-1.86C/m X total molality of solute particles

Dyes with PH sensitive colors are used as

indicators

Which mixture is made up of the smallest particles?

Salt water

Which of the following will dissolve most rapidly

powdered sugar in hot water

In an acid-base titration, equivalent quantities of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions are present

at the end point

Colligative properties depend on

the concentration of the solute particles

Why is boiling point elevation a colligative property?

It is directly proportional to the molal concentration of a solution.

The antilogarithm of a number, y, is

10 raised to the power of y

Precipitation is an example of what type of reaction?

double-displacement

When a weak electrolyte dissolves,

H30+ is produced

An acid-base titration is carried out by monitoring

PH

Which is not an example of a colloid?

Sugar water

Indicators are classified into three types according to

the PH at which they change color

In water solutions of HCL the free H+ ion is

not present

The hydronium ion contains

three equivalent covalent bonds

Which of the following will dissolve most slowly?

large salt crystals in unstirred water

Which of the following does not increase the rate of dissolving a solid in water?

Using larger pieces of solid

The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves is called

Dissociation

Which of the following is expressed in grams of solute instead of moles of solute?

Neither of these

The PH of an acidic solution is

less than seven

Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent in a process called

Ionization

An acid-base titration involves a

neutralization reaction

The PH range over which an indicator changes color is its

transition interval

Electrolytes affect colligative properties differently than do nonelectrolytes because electrolytes

produce more moles of solute particles per mole of solute

Pure water partially breaks down into charged particles in a process called

self-ionization

What is the PH of a neutral solution at 25 degrees?

7

What is the concentration of H30+ ions in pure water?

10^-7

The Tyndall effect is used to distinguish between

solutions and colloids

A water solution whose PH is 6

is always acidic

What process measures the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration?

Titration

Which of the following is an example of a polar solvent?

Water

When a molecular substance ionizes in water

charged particles are formed, and the less electronegative atom becomes a negative ion

The hydrogen ion

is a prton

Which indicator is used to study neutralizations of strong acids with strong bases?

Bromthymol blue

During an acid-base titration, a very rapid change in PH

occurs when the amounts of H30 and OH are nearly equivalent

Dissolving HCL in water produces

H30+ and CL -

All of the following are heterogeneous mixtures except

tap water

Substances whose water solutions conduct electricity easily

ionize in water q

How many ions are produced by each formula unit of solid in a dissociation?

Two or more

Pure water contains

everything

Which of the following is an example of a nonpolar solvent?

Toluene

Which of the following is an ionic compound that dissociates in water?

NaCl

Which of the following liquids is basic?

Milk

Electrolytes have a greater effect on freezing-point depression than nonelectrolytes because electrolytes

produce more moles of solute per mole of solvent

When solutions of two ionic compounds are combined and a solid forms, the process is called

precipitation

Which of the following is a weak electrolyte?

Acetic acid

The PH scale ranges from

0 to 14

What's the PH of a solution

-log(H30+

An acid-base titration determines the volumes of two solutions that

are chemically equivalent

A metal solution is an

alloy

Which of the following liquids is acidic?

Orange juice

Raising the collision rate between solute and solvent

increases the rate of dissolution

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