The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War.
the forced removal of Africans from their homeland to serve as slaves in the Americas
Based on agriculture and trade (examples: Mali, Ghana, Songhai)
Believing that africa should be united to be able to push out the Europeans
African Slave Trade
African people were taken as slaves to be sold in America, in America they would work in mines & plantations. The profit went to europe where they built goods to then be sold to Africans. It was a triangle.
Government owns and operates major businesses and controls other parts of the economy (agricultural self sufficiency)
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
Crops that are farmed and sold for money rather than eaten (example: Cocoa, Cotton, Coffee)
a geographical area politically controlled by a distant country (example: India was dependent on Britain therefor it was independent)
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Direct & Indirect rule
Two types of rule used by Colonialists in Africa, Direct is when they remove a leader for one of their own officials and indirect is when they keep the leader but have control over him
A long period without rain
a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status
Empire of Ghana
A West African Kingdom that grew rich from taxing and controlling trade and established an empire. Government & Trade: Founders:Soninke. Invaded by Almoravids (kingdom of gold)
Empire of Mali
After the Ghana kingdom, a West African kingdom that obtained wealth through the gold trade, was ruled by Mansa Musa, and made Timbuktu into a prosperous West African city, 13th-14th centuries AD
A time when there is so little food that many people starve
God, Gold, Glory
The three main reasons that motivated Europe to seek new trade routes to asia
Gold and salt made up trade and wealth in the African kingdoms because the Europeans wanted gold, and the Africans needed salt (important trade of resources for Mali and Ghana Kingdom)
Great Rift Valley
giant fault line or crack in the Earth' s crust which runs from the Red Sea to the Zambezi River (early Africans settled there)
Electricity generated by flowing water
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
First Tanzanian president after they gained their independence and believed in one-party and wanted to end foreign influence
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
The process of transporting nutrients from one layer to another where it becomes deposited.
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 - 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
This Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in West Africa
A violent movement against European settlers that eventually led to Kenya's decolonization from Britain
A nondemocratic rule in which the military intervenes directly in politics as the organization that can solve the problems.
People sent out to carry a religious message; also focuses on converting non-Christians to Christianity
An economic system based on money rather than barter
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Resistance to side with one nation/force. Ex: India did not take a side during the Cold War (neutralism)
A group of peacekeeping soldiers form various African nations mandated to report violations of cease- fire agreements, atrocities and killings occurring in Sudan in Darfur.
Rule by one political party, with other parties banned or excluded from power.
Literature that is spoken and handed down through generations
Philosophy based on the belief that Africans share common bonds and are a unified people. Adopted this to break from colonial rule.
Farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced, but not a surplus of crops to sell
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
Cities grow and societies become more urban
W.E.B. Du Bois
Believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately;founded the NAACP
White Man's Burden
Idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Zulu Nation (Shaka Zulu)
a king warrior who conquered land in south Africa and slowed the British from colonizing it.