A substance in food that provides energy, or a raw material that the body needs in order to carry out its life processes.
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
An energy-rich organic compound, such as a sugar or starch, that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates provide the raw materials to make parts of cells.
A sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells.
A complex carbohydrate found in plant foods that cannot be broken down into sugar molecules by the body.
A high-energy nutrient that is composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and contains more than twice as much energy as an equal amount of carbohydrate.
A fat, such as olive oil, that is usually liquid at room temperature
A fat, such as butter, that is usually solid at room temperature
A waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products that is an important part of the body's cells; can build up on artery walls.
A large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur that is used for tissue growth and repair; plays an important role in the chemical reactions of cells
Small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules.
A molecule that acts as a helper in a variety of chemical reactions within the body.
A naturally occurring solid with a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition; a simple element that is not organic and that is needed by the body.
Percent Daily Value
An indication on a food label of how the nutritional content of a food fits into the diet of a person who consumes a total of 2,000 Calories a day
The process by which the body breaks down complex molecules of food into small nutrient molecules.
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion.
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in living things.
The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
The muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
A thick, slippery substance produced by the body.
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
A J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen that expands to hold all of the food that is swallowed.
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place
The largest and heaviest organ inside the body; it breaks down substances and eliminates nitrogen from the body.
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver.
A triangular organ that produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and that provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed.
The last section of the digestive system where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body.
A short section at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
The opening at the end of the digestive system through which wastes are eliminated.