Chemistry Final Exam

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chemistry final exam terms

reactants

a substance that reacts in a chemical change

products

a substance that is formed in a chemical change.

fluidity

the ability to flow and therefore take the shape of its container...

pressure

the force per unit area on a surface

diffusion

spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substance cased by their random motion

effusion

a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening

kinetic molecular theory

a theory based on the idea that paricles of matter are always in motion.

ideal gases

an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory

real gases

a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory

london forces

an inter-molecular attraction resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles.

dipole dipole

a force of attraction between polar molecules ...

hydrogen bonds

the inter-molecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an un-shared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule.

triple point

indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance coexist at equilibrium

critical temperature

the temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid state

solute

the substance being dissolved into a solution

solvent

the dissolving medium in the solution

solution

• Dispersed particles are individual ions or molecules
• Transparent (see through them)
• Stable (do not separate upon standing)
• Cannot be separated by filtration (or distillation)

colloid

• Dispersed particles are clumps of molecules with particle sizes
• Look homogeneous to the naked eye
• Often murky or opaque
• Particles are large enough to scatter light (Tyndall Effect)
• Particles are too small to be separated by filtration

suspension

• Dispersed particles are clumps of molecules
• Particles may be visible to the naked eye
• Do not transmit light
• Can be separated by filtration

unsaturated

a solution that contains less solute than the saturation solution under the existing conditions

saturated

a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute

supersaturated

a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same pressure

dilute

there is relatively small amounts of solute in a solvent

concentrated

there is a relatively large amount of solute in a solvent

electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current

non electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electrical current

strong electrolyte

any compound whose dilute aqueous solution conducts electricity well

weak electrolyte

any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poor

dissociation

the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves

ionization

the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of an ion.

emulsifying agent

substances added to an emulsion to prevent the coalescence of the globules of the dispersed phase.

miscibility

the ability for liquids and solids to dissolve freely in one another in any proportion

volatile

a liquid that evaporates readily

surface tension

a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface areas to the smallest possible size

spectator ions

the ions that do not change from one side of the equation to the other.

london dispersion force

the only intermolecular force in non-polar compounds. This is the weakest force that is found in all atoms and molecules. It has to do with the way the electrons are distributed for an instant.

dipole dipole

found in polar compounds

hydrogen bond

the strongest dipole dipole force. A molecule that is very positive on one end and very negative on the other end.

hydrogen bond, dipole dipole, london dispersion

name the order of strengths of the intermolecular forces

low volatility

if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the volatility?

high boiling point

if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the boiling point?

high surface tension

if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the surface tension?

high capillary action

if the inter molecular forces are STRONG what can you about the capillary action?

gas because there is not much energy holding the molecules together

If the only intermolecular forces present in a substance are London dispersion forces, what would probably be the physical state of the substance at room temperature?

chemical change

color change, formation of a precipitate, evolution of a gas, and energy release are indicators that a _____ has taken place?

when you use up the limiting reaction

when will a reaction stop?

boiling point

temperature when the vapor pressure equals the prevailing atmospheric pressure

effervescence

rapid escape of a gas

0K

-273 degrees is the same thing as ____?

temperature

factors affecting solubility of a solid in a liquid?

temperature and pressure

factors affecting solubility of a gas in a liquid?

henry's law

the solubility of a gas in a liquid id directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.

real gases

gases that are far apart, are in constant motion, lose energy when they collide, have weak attractive forces, and when you heat them up they move faster

ideal gases

gases that are far apart, are in constant random motion, they do not lose energy when they collide, and there are no attractive forces between them, and there is an increase in kinetic energy when there is an increase in temperature.

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