Soc 201 test 4

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What is another term for legitimate power?

authority

What is another term for illegitimate power

coercion

What is the entity that claims a monopoly on legitimate force or violence?

The government AKA state

What were the three sources of authority identified by Max Weber?

traditional, rational-legal, charismatic

What is another term for bureaucratic authority?

Rational-legal authority

What is the relationship between the level of industrialization and the level of traditional authority?

Traditional authority declines with the rising level industrialization

) John F. Kennedy had a combination of types of leadership. Although he was the president of the United States, he also inspired people to get involved with their country's programs through his inspirational speeches. President Kennedy combined which two sources of authority?

charismatic and rational-legal

What is the key concept on which representative democracy is based?

Where voters elect representatives to meet together to discuss issues and make decisions on their behalf.

of the following individuals, who is most likely to vote in a presidential election in the United States?

Moe, a 52-year-old married white non-Hispanic who works as a senior research chemist

What is the diffusion among many different organizations, including conservatives and liberals and special interest groups, that prohibits any one group from gaining total control in U.S. politics?

Pluralism

What were the three conditions identified by Nicholas Timasheff as essential to war?

Antagonistic situation in which 2 or more states confront incompatible objectives
Cultural tradition of wat because their nation has fought wars in the past
A fuel that heats the antagonistic situation to a boiling point so that politicians cross the line from thinking about war to waging it. (revenge, power, prestige, unity, postion, ethnicity, beliefs)

Which of the following is the best description of an economy?

A system of producing and distributing goods and services

Of the following societies, which would most likely have a subsistence economy?

Def: hunting and gathering societies
Example: 25-40 people

When did the first noticeable conditions of social inequality occur in human societies?

When surplus was generated through a division of labor.

In which society did power shift from the heads of families and clans to a ruling elite, leading to greater inequality?

Agricultural societies

What was necessary for conspicuous consumption to become widespread?

The steam engine and more efficient machines created even greater surpluses which changed emphasis from producing goods to consuming them

What term best describes the linking of the world's nations by fast communications, transportation, and trade?

global village

What is a pure form of capitalism where market forces operate without government interference

Laissez-faire capitalism

In a capitalist economy, who or what determines the price of goods?

The owners determine the price of goods

What are the three essential components of socialism?

1. public ownership of the means of production
2. central planning
3. distribution of goods without a profit motive

) What is the primary criticism made against socialism?

The system does not respect individual rights

What is the primary criticism leveled against capitalism?

It leads to social inequality

According to the text, what may be the most significant economic change in the past 100 years?

The globalization of capitalism

The leaders of the globe's top multinational companies have overlapped to such a degree that they have formed what is known as the ________.

Global superclass

Which of the following is a driving force behind social change?

Domestication of plants and animals, invention of plow, steam engine and now microchip. Example: technology allows us to drill for oil a mile beneath the oceans surface.

What do sociologists call the shift in the characteristics of culture and society?

Social Change

To what event did Max Weber trace the social invention of capitalism?

To the protestant reformation

What do sociologists call the sweeping changes in society ushered in by the Industrial Revolution that included the rise of capitalism, the accumulation of large surpluses, and the development of distinct social classes?

modernization

What is one of the two serious threats to global division that the Group of 8 has had to address?

The resurgence of ethnic conflicts worldwide.

Which of the following best describes Marx' view of human history, in which struggle develops between a thesis and its antithesis, leading to a synthesis?

A dialectic process of history in which each ruling group sows the seeds of its own destruction

Prior to the voyage of Christopher Columbus, everyone "knew" the world was flat. Following his voyage in 1492, the world suddenly became round. According to William Ogburn, what concept best describes the process by which this fundamental belief was changed?

Discovery

The Vikings "discovered" America long before Columbus set sail in 1492, but it failed to be recorded or lead to any extensive change. What is the underlying principle of discovery that this illustrates?

Discovery must occur at the right time if it is to make an impact on society

When missionaries introduced steel axes to the Aborigines of Australia, it upset their entire society. What is the spreading of an invention, such as the ax, from one society to another referred to by sociologists?

Diffusion

During cultural lag, which process is the most likely to occur?

Some elements of a culture lag behind the changes that come from invention, discovery, and diffusion. Technology changes first.

What is the artificial means by which we extend our ability to adapt to the environment called

technology

All societies use technology, but what is the major benefit that new technology provides members of the postmodern society?

It greatly extends our abilities to communicate, to travel, and to retrieve and analyze information

What aspect of new technology is of the most interest to sociologists?

how technology changes people's way of life

Computerization provides the ability to transfer "digital money" instantaneously from banks in the United States to Swiss bank accounts, then to offshore accounts in the Grand Cayman Islands, and then to foreign investors. What is the major concern expressed by governments over the use of this technology?

That their privacy will be invaded or identity stolen

Thousands of people have banded together to protest drunk driving, to bring public attention to the deaths and property damage it causes, and to encourage legislators to pass more severe laws directed against drunk drivers. What term describes such a combination of people banding together to create change in society

Social movements

What type of social movement involves people uniting to resist social change, such as members of the NRA collectively fighting against stricter gun control laws?

reactive social movement

What term applies to a social movement that seeks only to change some specific behavior of individuals, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union's efforts to ban the consumption of alcoholic beverages?

Alternative social movements

What is the target and goal of a redemptive social movement?

Targets individuals but their goal is total change

What is the social institution that plays a crucial role in social movements as they act as the gatekeepers of information that can either promote or defeat the movement?

Mass media

What type of environment is created when a world system uses the earth's resources to meet our needs without destroying humanity's future

Sustainable environment

What is the goal of environmental sociology?

To study how humans affect the physical environment and how the physical environment affects human activities

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