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biological implications

psychobiology?

the study of biological foundations of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes

neurons?

nerve cells

what does the left hemisphere control?

dominant in most people. Control speech, comprehension, rationality, and logic.

what does the right hemisphere of the brain control?

sometimes called the creative brain, associated with effect, behavior, and spatial perceptual functions

cerebrum?

composed of two hemispheres separated deep groove that houses a band of 200 million neurons

diencephalon?

connects cerebrum of lower brain structures. composed of the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic system.

What is the mesencephalon responsible for?

responsible for the integration of various reflexes, including visual reflexes (turning away when the dangers object comes into view) auditory reflexes (automatically turning toward sound that is heard), and writing reflexes (automatically keeping him upright and maintain balance)

What is the Pons?

forms a major connection between the cerebellum and brainstem. Also contains central connection cranial nerves five through eight and centers for respiration and skeletal muscle tone

What does the medulla regulate?

regulate heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and reflects centers for swallowing, sneezing, coughing, vomiting.

cerebellum?

concern with involuntary movements such as muscular tone and coordination and maintenance of posture and equilibrium

what are neurons composed of?

composed of cell body, axon, and dendrites.

synapses?

junction between two neurons. Small space between the Axon terminals of a neuron in the cell body or dendrites of another neuron is called the synaptic cleft.

neurotransmitter?

chemical data stored in the axon terminals of light presynaptic neuron. Electrical impulse to the neuron stimulates the release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft, which in turn determines whether another electrical impulses generated

receptor

molecules situated on the cell membrane that are binding sites for neurotransmitters

acetylcholine

Location: major effector chemical within the autonomic nervous system.
Functions: implicated in sleep, arousal, pain perception, the modulation and coordination of movement, and memory acquisition and retention.
Mental Illness: may have some long-term disorders or motor behavior and memory such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Increased levels have been associated with depression

norepinephrine

Location: found in the ANS
Function: has a role in regulation of mood, in cognition and perception, in cardiovascular function, and in sleep and arousal.
Mental Illness: implicated certain mood disorders such as depression and mania, anxiety states, and in schizophrenia. Levels are to be decreasing depression and increasing mania, anxiety, and schizophrenia

dopamine

Location: arises from midbrain and hypothalamus and him in the frontal cortex the limbic system, basal value, thalamus.
Function: regulation of movement and coordination, emotions, voluntary decision-making ability, and because of its influence of the pituitary gland, it inhibits the release of prolactin.
Mental Health: Decreased levels implicate Parkinson's disease and depression. Increased levels associated with mania and schizophrenia

serotonin

Location: originate from cell bodies located in the ponds and medulla.
Function: Play a role in sleep and arousal, libido, appetite, mood, aggression, and pain perception.
Mental Health: Increase levels have been implicated in schizophrenia and anxiety states. Decreased levels have been associated with depression

Gamma aminobutyricacid (GABA)

Location: widespread distribution and central nervous system.
Functions: Interrupts the progression of electrical impulses at the synaptic junction, producing a significant slowdown of body activity.
Mental Health: Decreased levels implicated with anxiety disorders, movement disorders such as Huntington's disease, and various forms of epilepsy.

glycine

Location: found in the spinal cord and brain stem
Function: involved in recovering inhibition of motor neurons within the spinal cord and is possibly involved in regulation of spinal brainstem reflexes.
Mental Health: Decreased levels implicated in the pathogenesis of certain types of spastic disorders. Toxic levels can result in glycine encephalopathy.

glutamate

Location: found in pyramidal cells the cortex.
Functions in the relay of sensory information and regulation of various motor or spinal reflexes.
Mental health: Increased receptor activity implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's. Decreased can induce psychotic behavior

endorphins and enkephalins

Location: found all over the brain.
Functions: Thought to have a role in pain modulation.
Mental Health: Modulation of dopamine activity by opioid peptides may indicate some link to the symptoms of schizophrenia

substance P

Location: found all over central nervous system.
Function: Plays a role in sensory transmission, particularly in the regulation of pain.
Mental Health: Decreased levels found in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia clients with Huntington's disease

somatostatin

Location: found all over central nervous system.
Function: stimulates dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and a cynical line and inhibits norepinephrine, histamine, glutamate. Also regulates the release of serotonin.
Mental Health: High levels have been reported in brain specimen clients with Huntington's disease, low levels in clients with Alzheimer's disease

fiber tracts

cross-sectional or spinal cord with areas of gray matter, and white matter. The ascending spinal tracts carry impulses to the brain, and descending tracts care motor impulses from the brain.

spinal nerves

31 pairs of nerves. Cervical nerve supply a proportion of body, thoracic nerve supply the trunk, lumbar and sacral nerve supply the hips, pelvic cavity, and legs.

What are the parts of the peripheral nervous system

afferent system conveys information to the central nervous system. Eferrent system carry information from central nervous system to peripheral areas of the body.

somatic nervous system

consist of fibers that go from the CNS to the skeletal muscles. Excitement of which contracts muscles

autonomic nervous system

Eferrent neurons of the ANS innervate smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.

what are the parts to the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic Nervous System: becomes dominant or stressful situations. Increases cardiac and respiratory activity and a decrease in G.I. functioning. Neurotransmitters involved include acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Parysympathtic nervous system is dominant in nonstressful state. Promotes GI functioning and maintains heart and respiration at resting rates. Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter.

neuroendocrine system

dominant in nonstressful or relaxed state. Promotes efficient jet functioning and maintains hard respiration and resting rates. Neurotransmitters found is acetylcholine.

what is referred to as the master gland?

pituitary gland because of its powerful control it exerts over the endocrine functioning. Two loaves are anterior posterior.

what are the two hormones found in the posterior pituitary region?

antidiuretic hormone: Main function conserve body water and maintain normal blood pressure. Release is stimulated by pain, emotional stress, dehydration, increase plasma concentration, or decreased blood volume.
Oxytocin: stimulate contraction of the uterus at the end of pregnancy stimulates the release of milk from memory plans. Released in response to stress and during sexual arousal.

what are other releasing hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, gonadotropic hormones, melanocyte stimulating hormone

what are some anomalies of the brain associated with schizophrenia?

significant enlargement of cerebral ventricular size and the brain. Temporal lobe size may be decreased. Some individuals exhibit abnormal cerebral asymmetry, reduce cerebral volume, and brain density changes.

an excess of what neurotransmitter may be linked to schizophrenia?

excessive dopamine. Abnormalities in norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and GABA.

a decrease in which hormone has a correlation with schizophrenia?

decreased level of prolactin caused by increased level of dopamine.

when dealing with mood disorders what kind of neuronalanatomical considerations are expected in the person?

hypothesis that mood disorders involve pathology of the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system. Limbic system plays a major role in the discharge of emotions.

which neurotransmitters is lacking in a person with signs and symptoms of depression?

norepinephrine and dopamine, and serotonin

a hyper secretion of this neurotransmitter are found in patients who are depressed?

hyper secretion of cortisol which suppresses dexamethasone. Diminished TSH is observed and 25% of patients with depression.

to determine if an individually has medically treatable depression which hormone would you test for?

dexamethasone

hypothyroidism is linked to what mood disorder? Hyperthyroidism is linked to what?

Hypothyroid is linked to Depression, Hyperthyroid to acute mania

the limbic system is related to which type of disorder?

obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders

the neurotransmitters most closely associated with anxiety disorders are?

norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA

hormones that are increased due to anxiety disorders are?

increased TSH and prolactin have been observed in individuals with anxiety disorder.

CT studies have revealed enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces during the starvation period In which patients?

anorexia nervosa

neurotransmitters associated with anorexia nervosa are?

Dysregulation of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

when viewing an MRI of the brain and finding diffuse atrophy with flattened cortical sulci and enlarged cerebral ventricles one can assume that the patient has?

Alzheimer's disease

patients with Alzheimer disease are unable to produce the enzyme that produces what neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

what are psychotropic medications?

medications that affect psychic function behavior or experience

what are psychotropic medications intended for?

they are not intended to cure mental illness. They do not resolve emotional problems. They relieve physical and behavioral symptoms

true or false the patient has a right to refuse treatment or medication?

true

what must the client understand when taking psychotropic medications?

why the medication has been prescribed, when it should be taken, and what they may expect in terms of side effects and possible adverse reactions. Also would a contact and when is it important to report to their physician.

how do researchers hypothesize that most antidepressants work

preventing reuptake of neurotransmitters particularly serotonin and norepinephrine which allows more than neurotransmitter to be available for neural transmission. Some antidepressants block receptor sites on related to their mechanisms of action which can lead to the development of certain side effects.

how do antipsychotic medications work?

these medications block dopamine receptors, and some affect muscarinic cholinergic, system allergic, and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Atypical antipsychotics block a specific serotonin receptor. Benzodiazepines facilitate the transmission of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid

to ensure smooth transmission from a psychosocial focus to one of bio psychosocial emphasis, nurses must have a clear understanding of the following?

neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, neuronal processes, Neuroendocrinology, circadian rhythms, genetic influences, psycho-musicology, psychopharmacology, diagnostic technology

which of the following parts of the brain is associated with multiple feelings and behaviors and is sometimes referred to as the emotional brain?
a.frontal lobe
b.thalamus
c.hypothalamus
d.limbic system

d. Limbic System

which of the following parts of the brain is concerned with visual perception and interpretation?
a.frontal lobe
b.parietal lobe
c.temporal lobe
d.occipital lobe

d. occipital lobe

which of the following parts of the brain is associated with voluntary body movement, thinking and judgment, and expression of feeling?
a.frontal lobe
b.parietal lobe
c.temporal lobe
d.occipital lobe

a. frontal lobe

which of the following parts of the brain integrates all sensory input except smell on the way to the cortex
a.temporal lobe
b.thalamus
c.limbic system
d.hypothalamus

b. Thalamus

which of the following parts of the brain deals with sensory perception and interpretation?
a.hypothalamus
b.cerebellum
c.parietal lobe
d.hippocampus

C. Parietal lobe

which of the following parts of the brain has control over the pituitary gland and autonomic nervous system? It also regulates appetite and temperature
a.temporal lobe
b.parietal lobe
c.cerebellum
d.hypothalamus

D.hypothalamus

at a synapse, the determination of further impulse transmission is accomplished by means of which of the following?
a.potassium ions
b.interneurons
c.neurotransmitters
d.myelin sheath

c.neurotransmitters

a decrease in which of the following neurotransmitters has been implicatedin depression?
a.GABA, acetylcholine, and aspartate
b.norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
c.somatostatin, substance P, and glycine
d.glutamate, histamine, and opioid peptides

B. Norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine

which of the following hormones has been implicated in the etiology of mood disorder with seasonal patterns?
a.increased levels of melatonin
b.decreased levels of oxytocin
c.decreased levels of prolactin
d.increased levels of thyrotropin

a.increased levels of melatonin

psychotropic medications that block the reuptake of serotonin may result in which of the following side effects?
a.dry mouth
b.constipation
c.blurred vision
d.sexual dysfunction

D.sexual dysfunction

psychotropic medications that block acetylcholine receptors may result in which of the following side effects
a.dry mouth
b.sexual dysfunction
c.nausea
d.priapism

a.dry mouth

which of the following parts of the brain is concerned with hearing, short-term memory, and sense of smell?
a.temporal lobe
b.parietal lobe
c.cerebellum
d.hypothalamus

a. Temporal lobe

psychotropic medications that are strong blockers of the D2 receptor are more likely to result in which of the following side effects?
a.sedation
b.urinary retention
c.extrapyramidal symptoms
d.hypertensive crisis

C. Extrapyramidal symptoms

What does the thalamus do?

Thalamus: integrates all sensory input except smell on its way to the cortex. Some involvement with emotions and mood.

What doe the Hypothalamus regulate

regulates anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland. Control over the actions of the autonomic nervous system, and regulates appetite and temperature

What does the Limbic System control.

associated with fear anxiety, anger and aggression, love, joy, and hope, and sexuality and social behavior

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