Chapter 16: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation Practice Test

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Which of the following blood vessels is the site most often used to find a pulse?

radial artery

Blood is carried away from the heart by?

systemic and pulmonary arteries

A(n) _______ is a thin, weakened section of the wall of a blood vessel which is prone to rupture.

aneurysm

Which of the following arteries is a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk?

right subclavian

Which artery enters the skull through the foramen magnum?

vertebral

Which of the following arteries is/are NOT a branch(es) of the aorta?

pulmonary arteries

The _______ is the part of the aorta that passes through the diaphragm.

descending aorta

The circle of Willis provides blood supply to the _______.

brain

The basilar artery is formed by the union of the _______ arteries.

vertebral

Which of the following vessels return blood directly into the inferior vena cava?

hepatic veins and common iliac veins

Which category of blood vessels are the thinnest, walled structures?

capillaries

The longest vein in the human body is the _______.

great saphenous

Which of the following carries oxygenated blood?

pulmonary vein

Which of the following veins is/are most responsible for draining blood from the head?

internal jugular

Endothelium makes up the _______ layer of the arteries.

inner layer

The exchange of nutrients and waste products takes place through the walls of _______.

capillaries

Which of the following is the largest artery in the thigh?

femoral

If your total blood volume is 5 liters, the volume in your veins and venules at any given time is about _______.

3 liters

Blood pressure is highest in the _______.

aorta

Contraction of skeletal muscles in the leg causes blood to be pumped toward the heart because?

proximal valves open and distal valves close

Which type of blood vessel is primarily responsible for control of systemic vascular resistance on a moment-to-moment basis?

arterioles

The most immediate result of increased skeletal muscle contraction and increased respiratory rate (activating the "respiratory pump") would be?

increased venous return to the heart

Stimulation of baroreceptors in large arteries of the head and neck, triggers sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in?

vasoconstriction

If blood pressure drops, negative feedback mechanisms trigger?

increased heart rate, stroke volume, and vasoconstriction

Which of the following lowers blood pressure by causing vasodilation and promoting the loss of Na+ ions and water?

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

Which of the following chemical changes in blood is least likely to activate chemoreceptors (in aorta and carotids) to signal the cardiovascular center to increase heart rate?

High blood level of O2

True or false: Blood in a femoral vein does normally pass through the hepatic artery and the liver en route back to the right atrium.

False

If the blood pressure reading on a patient is 142/96, the diastolic pressure is _______.

96 mm Hg

The most proximal portion of the aorta is the _______.

ascending aorta

The diameter of the aorta in an adult is about _______.

1 inch

The blood that flows to the left arm passes through the _______.

left subclavian artery

The right radial and right ulnar arteries are branches of the right _______ artery.

brachial

True or false: The kidneys are supplied with blood from branches of the celiac artery.

False

The unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta are the _______.

celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries

The descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum are supplied with blood by the _______.

inferior mesenteric artery

The abdominal aorta divides into the common iliac arteries at about the level of the _______.

fourth lumbar vertebra

The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae have foramina that allow passage of the _______.

vertebral arteries

True or false: Brachial veins are superficial veins?

False

When the axillary vein leaves the arm and enters the shoulder region it is renamed the _______.

subclavian vein

Visualize red blood cells in the left femoral vein. What would the correct sequence of three blood vessels that they are likely to enter next be?

left external iliac vein ◊ left common iliac vein ◊ inferior vena cava

True or false: The inferior vena cava receives blood directly from the gastrointestinal tract?

False

At the back of the knee, the anterior and posterior tibial and small saphenous veins drain blood into the _______ vein.

popliteal

By age 80, blood flow through the kidneys is likely to be about _______ percent less than that in the same person at the age of 30.

50

Orthostatic hypotension is most likely to occur when a person does what?

stands up

A vein that carries blood from one organ to another (when neither is the heart)--such as intestine to liver-- is called a ______ vein.

portal

The ability of a tissue to automatically adjust its blood flow to match its metabolic demands is called what?

Autoregulation

The fossa ovalis is to the foramen ovale as the ligamentum arteriosum is to the _______.

ductus arteriosus

The precapillary sphincters
are structures that regulate the flow of blood to what?

the capillaries

The exchange of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes, between fetal and maternal circulatory systems, occurs through what?

the placenta

Renin, the chemical that triggers the RAA mechanism (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone), is produced by what?

the kidneys

True or false: Autoregulation of blood flow into the capillaries in a specific area, such as an active gastrocnemius muscle, is under the control of sympathetic nerves and epinephrine in blood.

False

True or false: The axillary veins drain blood from the arms, axillae, and upper part of the chest wall.

True

True or false: An increase in vascular resistance increases blood pressure.

True

True or false: When blood pressure increases, the cardiovascular center responds by increasing parasympathetic stimulation and decreasing sympathetic stimulation.

True

True or false: Tachycardia indicates a slow resting pulse (heart rate) under 60 beats/min.

False

True or false: The greater the diameter of the lumen of a blood vessel, the lower the resistance to blood flow through that vessel.

True

True or false: In adult human circulation, the pulmonary veins carry blood that is more oxygenated than blood in the pulmonary arteries.

True

True or false: The presence of plasma proteins (such as albumin) plays more of a role in creating capillary blood pressure than in producing blood colloid osmotic pressure.

False

True or false: A high red blood cell (RBC) count tends to increase viscosity of blood and increase systemic blood pressure.

True

Sensory receptors that monitor changes in the blood pressure to the brain are baroreceptors located where?

in the carotid arteries

The blood vessels that allow the exchange of nutrients, wastes, oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissues are located where?

in the capillaries

The ability of a tissue to adjust it's blood flow is called what?

autoregulation

Blood flows through the blood vessels because of the establishment of what?

a pressure gradient

What represents pulmonary circulation as the blood flows from the right ventricle?

pulmonary trunk → pulmonary arteries → pulmonary capillaries → pulmonary veins

Supplying additional fat tissue with blood may raise blood pressure because of an increase in what?

total vessel length

What is composed of a single layer of endothelium and a basment membrane?

capillaries

What is formed by reuniting capillaries?

venules

What carries blood away from the heart?

arteries

What are the medium-sized vessels capable of high degree of vasoconstriction and vasodialation called?

muscular arteries

Veins may contain what?

valves

Elastic arteries are very stretchable and able to do what?

recoil

What regulates the blood flow in the capillaries?

the arterioles

Filteration of substances out of capillaries occurs when the capillary blood pressure is _______ and blood colloid osmotic pressure is ______.

high, low

Which hormones have opposite effects on blood pressure?

ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)

True or false: Walls of arteries are generally thicker and contain more elastic tissue than walls of veins.

True

Blood flows slowly through the capillaries to permit what to occur between the blood and body cells?

efficient exchange of nutrients an wastes

The volume of a homogeneous fluid passing per unit time through a capillary tube is directly proportional to the pressure difference between its ends and to the fourth power of its internal radius, and inversely proportional to its length and to the viscosity of the fluid describes what law?

Poiseuille's law

What is the source of all systemic arteries?

the aorta

What supplies a lower limb with blood?

the common iliac artery

The hearts blood system is called?

coronary circulation

What returns blood to the heart from the limbs?

inferior vena cava

What leads to the lungs?

the pulmonary trunk

What returns blood from the lungs to the heart?

the pulmonary vein

What supplies blood to the brain?

the cerebral arterial circle

What returns blood to the heart from the head and upper body?

superior vena cava

Will an increase in cardic output increase or decrease blood pressure?

increase it

Will hemorrhage increase or decrease blood pressure?

decrease it

Will vasodialation increase or decrease blood pressure?

decrease it

Will vasoconstriction increase or decrease blood pressure?

increase it

Will a stimulation of the heart by the sympathetic nervous system increase or decrease blood pressure?

increase it

Will hypoxia increase or decrease blood pressure?

increase it

Will epinephrine increase or decrease blood pressure?

increase it

Will a decrease in blood viscosity increase or decrease blood pressure?

decrease it

Will bradycardia increase or decrease blood pressure?

decrease it

Will an increase in blood volume increase or decrease blood pressure?

increase it

Aldosterone affects blood pressure by increasing reabsoption of what by the kidneys?

sodium ions and water

In a blood pressure reading of 110/70, the bottom number of 70 represents the pressure of the blood against the arteries during what?

ventricular relaxation

True or false: Regulation of blood vessel diameter originates from the hypothalamus.

False

Venous return to the heart is enhanced by which muscle pump?

the skeletal muscle pump

Venous return to the heart is enhanced by the pressure difference from venules to what?

the right ventricle

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