A(n) _______ is a thin, weakened section of the wall of a blood vessel which is prone to rupture.
Which of the following vessels return blood directly into the inferior vena cava?
hepatic veins and common iliac veins
Which of the following veins is/are most responsible for draining blood from the head?
If your total blood volume is 5 liters, the volume in your veins and venules at any given time is about _______.
Contraction of skeletal muscles in the leg causes blood to be pumped toward the heart because?
proximal valves open and distal valves close
Which type of blood vessel is primarily responsible for control of systemic vascular resistance on a moment-to-moment basis?
The most immediate result of increased skeletal muscle contraction and increased respiratory rate (activating the "respiratory pump") would be?
increased venous return to the heart
Stimulation of baroreceptors in large arteries of the head and neck, triggers sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in?
If blood pressure drops, negative feedback mechanisms trigger?
increased heart rate, stroke volume, and vasoconstriction
Which of the following lowers blood pressure by causing vasodilation and promoting the loss of Na+ ions and water?
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Which of the following chemical changes in blood is least likely to activate chemoreceptors (in aorta and carotids) to signal the cardiovascular center to increase heart rate?
High blood level of O2
True or false: Blood in a femoral vein does normally pass through the hepatic artery and the liver en route back to the right atrium.
The unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta are the _______.
celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries
The descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum are supplied with blood by the _______.
inferior mesenteric artery
The abdominal aorta divides into the common iliac arteries at about the level of the _______.
fourth lumbar vertebra
The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae have foramina that allow passage of the _______.
When the axillary vein leaves the arm and enters the shoulder region it is renamed the _______.
Visualize red blood cells in the left femoral vein. What would the correct sequence of three blood vessels that they are likely to enter next be?
left external iliac vein ◊ left common iliac vein ◊ inferior vena cava
True or false: The inferior vena cava receives blood directly from the gastrointestinal tract?
At the back of the knee, the anterior and posterior tibial and small saphenous veins drain blood into the _______ vein.
By age 80, blood flow through the kidneys is likely to be about _______ percent less than that in the same person at the age of 30.
A vein that carries blood from one organ to another (when neither is the heart)--such as intestine to liver-- is called a ______ vein.
The ability of a tissue to automatically adjust its blood flow to match its metabolic demands is called what?
The fossa ovalis is to the foramen ovale as the ligamentum arteriosum is to the _______.
The exchange of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes, between fetal and maternal circulatory systems, occurs through what?
Renin, the chemical that triggers the RAA mechanism (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone), is produced by what?
True or false: Autoregulation of blood flow into the capillaries in a specific area, such as an active gastrocnemius muscle, is under the control of sympathetic nerves and epinephrine in blood.
True or false: The axillary veins drain blood from the arms, axillae, and upper part of the chest wall.
True or false: When blood pressure increases, the cardiovascular center responds by increasing parasympathetic stimulation and decreasing sympathetic stimulation.
True or false: The greater the diameter of the lumen of a blood vessel, the lower the resistance to blood flow through that vessel.
True or false: In adult human circulation, the pulmonary veins carry blood that is more oxygenated than blood in the pulmonary arteries.
True or false: The presence of plasma proteins (such as albumin) plays more of a role in creating capillary blood pressure than in producing blood colloid osmotic pressure.
True or false: A high red blood cell (RBC) count tends to increase viscosity of blood and increase systemic blood pressure.
Sensory receptors that monitor changes in the blood pressure to the brain are baroreceptors located where?
in the carotid arteries
The blood vessels that allow the exchange of nutrients, wastes, oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissues are located where?
in the capillaries
What represents pulmonary circulation as the blood flows from the right ventricle?
pulmonary trunk → pulmonary arteries → pulmonary capillaries → pulmonary veins
Supplying additional fat tissue with blood may raise blood pressure because of an increase in what?
total vessel length
What are the medium-sized vessels capable of high degree of vasoconstriction and vasodialation called?
Filteration of substances out of capillaries occurs when the capillary blood pressure is _______ and blood colloid osmotic pressure is ______.
Which hormones have opposite effects on blood pressure?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
True or false: Walls of arteries are generally thicker and contain more elastic tissue than walls of veins.
Blood flows slowly through the capillaries to permit what to occur between the blood and body cells?
efficient exchange of nutrients an wastes
The volume of a homogeneous fluid passing per unit time through a capillary tube is directly proportional to the pressure difference between its ends and to the fourth power of its internal radius, and inversely proportional to its length and to the viscosity of the fluid describes what law?
Will a stimulation of the heart by the sympathetic nervous system increase or decrease blood pressure?
Aldosterone affects blood pressure by increasing reabsoption of what by the kidneys?
sodium ions and water
In a blood pressure reading of 110/70, the bottom number of 70 represents the pressure of the blood against the arteries during what?