when a writer uses God, destiny, or fate to dash the hopes and expectations of a character or humankind in general
irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience/reader but not by the characters in the play/story
pervasive irony created by a structural feature such as a naive protagonist whose viewpoint is consistently wrong, shared by neither author nor reader
faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascribes human feelings to nature or nonhuman objects
a short speech, delivered to the audience or to another character, that others onstage are not supposed to hear
in media res
Latin for "in the midst of things," i.e. beginning an epic poem in the middle of the action.