The changes in expected activities, roles, rights and obligations, and social relationships individuals experience as they move through culturally defined age categories
rite of passage
a public ceremony or ritual recognizing and making a transition from one group or status to another
A rite held to mark the transition, usually sexual maturity, of an individual or a group of individuals of the same sex
physical differences based on genetic differences between females and males
cultural construction of gender
the idea that gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic, and political forces acting within each culture
multiple gender identities
Definitions of sexual identities beyond the female and male duality, including their and fourth genders such as man-woman or woman-man
sexual division of labor
the assignment of survival tasks of the society according to gender; varies in different cultures
roles assigned by society to people of each gender.
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
a small foraging group with flexible composition that migrates seasonally
Autonomous or independent political units, often consisting of little more than an extended family, with informal leadership vested in one of the older family members
autonomous political units consisting of several extended families that live together for most or all of the year.
the ability to convince people they should act as you suggest
the recognized right of an individual to command another to act in a particular way
an autonomous political unit encompassing a number of distinct, geographically dispersed communities held together by sodalities
Formal institutions that cross-cut communities and serve to unite geographically scattered groups; may be based on kinship groups (clans or lineages) or on nonkinship groups.
centralized political systems with authority vested in formal, usually hereditary, offices or titles.
A centralized, multilevel political unit characterized by the presence of bureaucracy that acts on behalf of the ruling elite
systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance
a kind of social control characterized by the presence of authority, intention of of universal application, obligation, and sanction.
a method of dispute settlement in self-help legal systems involving multiple but balanced killings between members of two or more kin groups
court legal systems
Systems in which authority for settling disputes and punishing crimes is formally vested in a single individual or group
Court systems in which judicial authorities meet, frequently informally, in private to discuss issues and determine solutions to be imposed - evidence is not formally collected, and the parties involved in these cases are not formally consulted
courts of mediation
Court systems in which the judges attempt to reach compromise solutions, based on the cultural norms and values of the parties involved, that will restore the social cohesion of the community
courts of regulation
Court systems that use codified laws, with formally prescribed rights, duties, and sanctions.
A model used in legal reasoning that basically asks how a reasonable individual should have acted under these circumstances
degree to which individuals, groups, and categories differ in their access to rewards
a form of society in which there is little inequality in access to culturally valued rewards
Society that has a limited number of high ranking social positions that grant authority; groups are ranked relative to one another, w/ the highest rank bringing the highest rewards in prestige, power, and sometimes wealth
society with marked and largely or partly heritable differences in access to wealth, power, and prestige; inequality is based mainly on unequal access to productive and valued resources
System of stratification in which membership in a stratum can theoretically be altered and intermarriage between strata is allowed
stratification system in which membership in a stratum is in theory hereditary, strata are endogamous, and contact or relationships among members of different strata are governed by explicit laws, norms or prohibitions.
Ideas and beliefs that legitimize and reinforce inequalities in stratified society
An ideology that does not rely on the will of supernatural powers but justifies inequality on the basis of its society wide benefits
functional theory of inequality
Theory holding that stratification is a way to reward individuals who contribute most to society's well-being
conflict theory of inequality
Theory holding that stratification benefits mainly the upper stratus and is the cause of most social unrest and other conflicts in human societies