The study of early human beings and the ways that societies and cultures originate and are organized.
The scientific study of the physical remains of ancient societies to learn about past ways of life.
The complex whole of a particular people's way of life: their activities, their institutions, and their beliefs.
An advanced culture characterized by written language, formal government, and urban centers.
Jean Francois Champillion
The French scholar who deciphered the written language of the ancient Egyptians.
Englishman and Egyptologist who in 1922 discovered and excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen.
The sixth king of the Amorites who united most cities of Mesopotamia under his control and created code of 282 laws.
A beam with a bucket at one end that was used in ancient Egypt to lift water out of the Nile River and to irrigate fields.
The title held by the rulers of ancient Egypt. Derived from the word "Per-O," meaning "Great House".
The term means literally "sacred writing". The term that the Greeks often used in reference to the written language of the ancient Egyptians.
Mandate of Heaven
Principle developed during Zhou Dynasty that a ruler received the authority to rule from heaven
The Hebrews believed that they had a special "binding agreement" with God in which obedience to Him would bring blessings and disobedience would cause adversity.
3000 B.C. migrated from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in the northern part of Canaan. Territory consisted of 4 small city-states. Lacking arable land, they became the great sailors and navigators of the ancient world. Their ships passed through the Straits of Gibraltar and may have sailed as far as Britain.
"Spartans of the Near East". The most warlike people in history. Army was very powerful. Their name is synonymous with brutality.
The religion that was founded by this prophet from the 6th century B.C. was dualistic, emphasized righteous conduct and has influenced Judeo-Christian thought.
The region of southwestern Asia Minor to which many Greeks immigrated during the period 1100-800 B.C.
At this battle in 490 B.C., the Athenians attacked and defeated a much larger Persian force at a site located just over twenty miles outside of Athens. Today, this is the term for a twenty-six mile race.
The Persian advance down the Greek peninsula in 480 B.C. was delayed for three days at the "Hot Gates". Ultimately the Greeks were defeated after being betrayed by a local shepherd
The public square that was common to most Greek cities. It served as a market place, center of the political life of the city, and social gathering place
The "high city". The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city. It frequently was the site of temples dedicated to gods.
In its modern context, an adjective that can be used to describe an action or law that is particularly cruel or severe.
When used today, this word refers to a wise and skillful lawgiver or a member of a legislative body.
Sir Arthur Evans
The British archaeologist who discovered the ruins of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete c.1900 A.D.
The German industrialist who used his wealth to locate the ruins of the ancient city of Troy
The legendary lawmaker who gave the Spartans their constitution. After he wrote their laws, he left the city warning the Spartans not to change their laws until he returned.
At the battle of the "Hot Gates", this Spartan king led 300 men in battle for three days against the Persians. All but two of his men died.
The Athenian general and statesman who oversaw the reconstruction of Athens after the Persian Wars. He used money from a "defensive" alliance to build the Parthenon. He died during the Peloponnesian Wars as a result of a plague that broke out in Athens
The temple dedicated to Athena in Athens that represents the ideal of "nothing in excess". It is the most famous and most recognizable of all Greek temples.
In Greek drama, this is exaggerated self-pride or overconfidence, i.e., the fatal flaw, that often results in retribution
The most popular form of comedy in Greek theater. The use of humor to criticize people and institutions.
The civilization that existed in the eastern Mediterranean region, Egypt, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia from 323-31 B.C. It was a blend of Greek, Persian, Egyptian and Indian influences.
This blind poet is said to have described sunrise as "rosy-fingered dawn". His most famous works are epic poems describing the tenth year of the Trojan Wars and the journey home by a Greek hero to his wife
The "Father of Greek Tragedy". His most famous work is a trilogy that is most noted for the grandeur of its language. He wrote ninety plays but only seven have survived.
Nicknamed "the Gadfly", he was always asking questions. His motto was "know thyself". He was convicted of impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens because he told them to always ask questions.
Greek philosopher who stated in one of his most famous works that men should that for which they are best suited.
The "Father of Logic". This Greek philosopher wrote and edited over two hundred books. His work dominated scientific thought for centuries
The "Father of History" who described Egypt as "the gift of the Nile". He traveled extensively asking questions, recording answers, and checking the reliability of his sources. He sometimes created conversations and occasionally exaggerated.
The "Father of Medicine" who urged physicians to keep records and to exchange information. He was the first to view medicine as a science apart from religious belief or mythological explanation.
The symbol of the king's authority in Etruscan civilization. It was an ax enclosed in a bundle of rods.
In Roman society, the upper class. They were the "fathers of the people" who in the early days of Rome controlled the government and much of the wealth.
In Roman society, the majority of the Roman population: merchants, shopkeepers, farmers, etc.
This office in Roman government existed only during time of crisis. The term of office was six months during which time the person holding the office had absolute power.
In Roman society, the able commander who was later appointed dictator and consul for life
The grandnephew of Julius Caesar. He was a member of the Second Triumvirate and eventually became the first Roman emperor.
A tropical or subtropical grassland found in Africa containing scattered trees and drought resistant undergrowth.
The gifts, money, or estate paid by a young man's family to the family of the girl he is to marry in compensation for the loss of the girl's services within her family.
The book composed of writings accepted by Muslims as revelations made to Muhammad by Allah through the archangel Gabriel.
The spoken language of the Aryans that evolved slowly to include a written form and became one of the major languages of India.
In Buddhism, the state of oneness with the universe, the end of the cycle of rebirth. Not a place, but a state of extinction.
Mandate of Heaven
In ancient China, the authority to govern granted by the gods to deserving rulers.
Chinese philosophy that taught social harmony and good government would return to China if people lived according to principles of ethics. This philosophy shaped Chinese society and good government until the middle of the twentieth century.
This Chinese philosophy emphasized that people should renounce worldly ambition and turn to nature. By emphasizing harmony with nature, this philosophy deeply influenced Chinese arts, especially painting and poetry.
The political (economic and social) system that developed in Europe when local nobles began to govern their own land in the absence of strong central government.
During the Middle Ages, the common practice with regard to inherited wealth was for the oldest son to receive all of the inheritance.
The part of a medieval castle that was a tower containing storerooms barracks, workshops, and the noble's living quarters.
As part of the defenses in medieval castle, this was the iron gate that was lowered to keep invaders from entering the interior areas of the castle.
A "Mayor of the Palace" who used an efficient and reliable cavalry to victory in 732 A.D. that halted the Muslim advance into Western Europe.
Founder of the Merovingian dynasty, he was a brilliant and ruthless ruler who built an empire that stretched from the Pyrenees to Central Europe.
English ruler who built an empire that stretched from Spain to Central Europe; he allied closely with the Church and divided the empire.
The English scholar whom Charlemagne brought to his capital city. There he established a palace school to teach members of the royal family and the children of the nobles.
The power of the Church that denied a person of all Church services and sacraments, prevented them from burial on consecrated ground, and prohibited association with Church members.
King John of England was compelled by English nobles to sign this document in 1215 A.D. Among other things, it placed limits on the power of the king. The contents of this document were later interpreted as guarantees of basic rights to all English citizens.
A major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country and formerly possessing distinct political rights.
He could be given the honorific title "Father of European Monasticism". This Catholic saint established a monastery in northern Italy in 529 A.D. It became the model for monasteries throughout Western Europe.
William of Normandy
Tough and ruthless, he was crowned King of England on December 25, 1066. The castles that he had built in strategic locales throughout England symbolized Norman control. Posterity refers to him as "the Conqueror"
The reign of this English monarch lasted from 1154-1189. He began his reign from a position of power as he controlled land in England and France. He increased the use of itinerant judges and used 'juries'.
In 987 A.D., French nobles revived the Frankish custom of electing a king to fill a vacant throne. This man, the Count of Paris, was elected and he began a dynasty that ruled France for over two centuries.
The Catholic pontiff who called for a crusade in 1095 A.D. to aid the Byzantine emperor against the Turks.
Considered to be the greatest Scholastic philosopher, he saw no conflict between reason and faith. He brought Christian faith and Greek philosophy together.
His most famous work written in the Tuscan dialect that is the basis for modern Italian. His most famous work is a mythical journey through heaven, hell, and purgatory.
He wrote a series of stories that were told by a group of pilgrims journeying to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket.
A mythical journey through heaven, hell and purgatory that combines humor, tragedy, and the quest for religious understanding.
As pilgrims travel to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket, each tells a story that reveals the nature of life in the medieval era. The stories are funny, romantic, and sometimes bawdy.
A form of architecture characterized by great height, stained glass windows, and the use of arched bridges that help to disperse the lateral thrust of heavy roofs.
The term for the Catholic 'reconquest' of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims that was completed in 1492.
Within the Holy Roman Empire, the 'emperor' was elected. After 1536, the number of princes taking part in imperial elections was limited to seven. This the 'term' used in reference to any one of these men whose task it was to elect a Holy Roman Emperor.
The name given to the period during which the Catholic papacy was seated in southern France. It was named after a period of Jewish exile that occurred in the 6th century B.C.
The name given to the era in Church history (1378-1417) when there were two claimants to the throne of St. Peter. The period is given this name because it caused great division in the Church.
A view of life characterized by an interest in man and the beauty and opportunities of life on earth.
The view that politics is amoral and that any means, however unscrupulous, can be justified and used to achieve and maintain political power.
Justification by Faith
The fundamental precept of Lutheranism that states salvation is achievable through belief in Christ's sacrifice.
In October 1517, its author posted his views on religion, salvation, and Church abuses on the doors of Wittenberg Cathedral. The posting of this document and the ideas it contained set in motion the movement that was the Protestant Reformation.
Th religious belief that God has determined, in advance and for all time, who shall be saved and who shall be damned.
An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
His five thousand pages of notes and drawings suggest the broad range of subjects about which this artist was interested. He designed buildings, canals, and military devices in addition to being an artist of great talent and popularity.
He is considered to be the leading painter of the High Renaissance. He was called to Rome in 1508 to decorate the walls of the papal apartments. He is perhaps most famous for his tranquil, sweet-faced madonnas.
He is credited with the invention of movable type print in Europe (1454). This Mainz engraver's first 'publication' was a forty-two line Bible.
The "Prince of the Humanists" whose writings challenged certain aspects of Church dogma. He gained popularity and acclaim for his wit, style, and perception.
The most quoted author of all time. His works included Classical dramas ("Julius Caesar"), comedies ("The Tempest"), histories ("Richard III"), and tragedies ("Macbeth"). His works deal with great themes of literature - sin, love, honor, and revenge.
This reformer studied at the University of Erfurt, became obsessed with the question of Salvation, became a monk, and eventually was responsible for a new faith.
This leader of the Protestant Reformation grew up in France at the start of the Reformation. He was educated at the Universities of Paris and Orleans. He believed that God knew for all time those who would be saved and those who would be damned.
The British monarch who received the honorary title "Defender of the Faith" for his attacks against Luther. However, his battle with the papacy over the dissolution of his marriage caused him to break with the Church and establish the Church of England.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Published in 1536, this work influenced religious reformers in Europe and North America. Its author stated that the Bible is the sole source of religious knowledge and truth. The work set forth the path to salvation based upon the omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent nature of God.