← WHAP Princeton Review Vocab (1914 CE - Present) Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Triple Alliance Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungry, and Italy established in the 1880 by Otto Van Bismarck. Schlieffen Plan A 1905 German plan which called for a swift attack on France through Belgium. Triple Entente Alliance between Britain, France, and Russia established in 1907. Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria-Hungary politician who was shot and killed when visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914. Gavrilo Princip Serbian nationalist who shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Central Powers The alliance formed between the Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Austria-Hungary after Italy moved out of its obligations. Allies The alliance of more than 40 countries that found themselves taking up arms and siding with Britain, France, and Russia. Isolationism Declaration of neutrality and focus on internal affairs, as done by the United States at the beginning of World War I Zimmermann Telegram A secret message sent between Germans suggesting that Mexico ought to align itself with Germany in order to regain territory lost in the Mexican-American War, which caused the US to enter on the side of the Allies on April 2, 1917. Treaty of Versailles Treaty which brought about the end of World War I, which was extremely punitive against Germany, requiring it to pay reparations, release territory, and downsize its military. Fourteen Points Ideas from President Wilson which were focused on establishing future peace and a workable balance of power, departed from by the Treaty of Versailles League of Nations A joint council of nations called for by President Wilson's Fourteen Points Speech, which was unsuccessful in its establishment Russian Revolution Revolution which occurred after World War I in Russia in the face of rising casualties and food shortages. Czar Nicholas Ruler of Russia who had to step down in February 1917 due to the difficulties of war, ending the Romanov Dynasty. Alexander Kerensky Ruler of Russia who established a provisional government, which was ineffectual. Soviets Local councils which represented the interests of workers, peasants, and soldiers. They shared power in the provisional government, leading to disagreements. Bolsheviks Socialist Party in Russia which the soviets rallied behind in 1918. Vladimir Lenin Marxist leader of the Bolsheviks who mobilized the support of workers and soldiers through the April Theses. April Theses A document issued which demanded peace, land for peasants, and power to the soviets, which would help mobilize them and lead to Bolshevik control. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk An armistice with Germany and the soviets which ceded a huge piece of western Russia to Germany, dropping Russia out of World War I Soviet Union A group of Baltic Republics and areas further east which were united after the Russian Revolution. Red Army A military force established by the Bolsheviks in order to put down the counterrevolutionary struggles in the Baltic Republics. Leon Trotsky Leader of the Red Army in the early 1920s. Mustafa Kemal He would later become known as Ataturk, "the father of the Turks", who led successful military campaigns against the Greeks and overthrew the Ottoman sultan. New Economic Policy Policy established by Lenin in the early 1920s, which had some capitalistic aspects, and was successful in agriculture, but would be discarded when the leadership of the Communist party shifted to Joseph Stalin. Joseph Stalin Leader of the Communist Party after Lenin, who successfully industrialized the USSR and improved economic conditions for the country as the whole, but used terror tactics. Five Year Plans These plans called for expedient agricultural production by ruthlessly taking over private farms and combining them into state-owned enterprises. Collectivization Ruthlessly taking over private farms and combining them into state-owned enterprises. USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the formal name for the Soviet Union. Great Depression The economic conditions that followed the US stock market crash of 1929, which escalated into an international catastrophe as the illusion of financial health in Europe shattered. Franklin Roosevelt President of the United States elected in a landslide in 1932 as part of a backlash against the incumbent party (Republicans) of the Great Depression. Fascism The ideology that encouraged the destruction of the will of the individual in favor of "the people". Benito Mussolini The founder and leader of the fascist government of Italy, created in 1919. Blackshirts Party paid squads in Italy which fought socialist and communist organizations. Weimar Republic A conservative democratic republic in Germany which oversaw Germany's economic crisis after World War I. National Socialist Party The Nazis. This party rose to power in the 1920s, ushered in by the worldwide depression, in rejection of the Weimar Republic's elected body's responses to the numerous problems of the nation. Reichstag The elected body of the Weimar Republic. Adolf Hitler Head of the Nazi Party who rose to power after the Weimar Republic, named the fuhrer, established the Third Reich, with his eyes set on conquering Europe. Third Reich Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Francisco Franco General who led a group of army officers in 1936 to control large parts of Spain. His troops were known as nationalists. Rhineland A region west of the Rhine River that had been taken away from Germany after World War I, retaken by Hitler in 1935. Munich Conference of 1938 Conference which included Hitler, Mussolini, and Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of England. Neville Chamberlain Prime Minister of England who ruled during the rise of Hitler and the beginnings of World War II. Appeasement Policy of giving land in exchange for a promise of a stop to expansion. Nazi-Soviet Pact Agreement signed in 1939 between the Germans and the Soviet Union which agreed that Germany would not invade the Soviet Union if the Soviets stayed out of Germany's affairs. Manchukuo Japan's name for Manchuria after invading it and establishing a colony there in 1931. Anti-Comintern Pact An act against communism signed by Japan after withdrawing from the league of nations, aligning it with Germany just before World War II. Winston Churchill Prime Minster that replaced the diplomatically minded Chamberlain who refused to cut a deal with Germany and incited the beginnings of battle between Great Britain and Germany. Battle of Britain A massive air bombing campaigning 1940 which pitted the superior numbers of the German Air Force against the smaller numbers of the British Air Force as they bombed Britain. Tripartite Pact Agreement entered into by Japan, Rome, and Berlin, further aligning these nations together in 1941. Pearl Harbor The bombing of Hawaii on December 7, 1941 in reaction to the United States refusing to lift sanctions on Japan. This forced the United States to side with the allies. Manhattan Project The development of the atomic bomb by the United States. D-Day The biggest offensive as of yet in World War II, June 6, 1944, when English, American, and Canadian forces landed on the French beaches of Normandy. President Truman President who followed Franklin Roosevelt that ordered the dropping of the atomic bomb on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Hiroshima and Nagasaki The cities of Japan which were destroyed by two separate atomic bombs, causing the surrender of Japan. Marshall Plan Plan named for George C. Marshall, the secretary of state that came up with it. Established in 1947, the plan offered billions of dollars of American money to help reconstruct Europe. The economies of Western Europe would recover in less than a decade. United Nations The first of many international organizations, established in 1945 to replace the failed League of Nations. Cold War A period from 1945 through the early 1990s in which the two superpowers which emerged after World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union, vied for global domination and pulled the rest of the world into their standoff. Yalta and Potsdam Location of conferences where the Allies drew up plans to regroup after World War II, specifically establishing spheres of influence in Germany. Berlin Blockade The action in which the Soviets cut off land access to Berlin from the West. This, followed by the Berlin Airlift, would lead to the split of East and West Germany. Berlin Airlift The action in which the West flew in food and fuel to the western half of the city. This would lead to the split of East and West Germany. Soviet Bloc Another name for the Eastern Bloc, the group of Soviet satellites that joined Russia by the late 1940s. Western Bloc The name for Western Europe, the parts of Europe not controlled by the Soviets. Truman Doctrine Established in 1947, the United States explicitly stated that it would aid countries threatened by communist takeovers. Containment "Containing" the enemy. The policy in which a nation tries to prevent the expansion or spread of an enemy. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance of mutual defense between the Western Bloc and the United States. Warsaw Pact The military alliance of mutual defense of the Eastern Bloc. Iron Curtain The line between East and West, Western influence couldn't penetrate it and Easterners were rarely allowed to go to the Western Bloc. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Treaty that attempted to limit nuclear technology to China, Russia, USA, Great Britain, and France. International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, the agency that attempted to enforce the Nuclear Nonproliferation treaty after its ratification in 1968. Sun Yat-Sen Leader of the Chinese Revolution of 1911, which caused the fall of the Manchu/Qing Dynasty. Three Principles of the People Principles held by Sun Yat-sen in China: nationalism, socialism, and democracy. Kuomindang A political party established by Sun Yat-sen dedicated to his own goals. Chiang Kai-shek Successor to Sun Yat-sen who established the KMT as the ruling party of China, which only lasted until the Japanese Empire and the communists wreaked havoc on his plans. Mao Zedong Leader of the Chinese communists, who rallied millions of peasants and drove out the Kuomindang people before ruling the People's Republic of China. Republic of China Taiwan. Established by the KMT after being run out by the Communist Mao Zedong. People's Republic of China Communist China, the largest communist nation in the world under the leadership of Mao Zedong. Both it and the "Republic of China" have claimed to be the real China, like a hilarious comedy sketch, but the fun ended in 1973 when the United Nations recognized this China as the real China. Great Leap Forward Mao Zedong's push for huge communes to be created as a way of catapulting the revolution towards a true Marxist state. Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong's most significant domestic policy, established in 1966, which discouraged anything approaching a privileged ruling class by instating reforms meant to erase all traces of Western Influence. Deng Xiaoping Leader of China who changed the education policy of China and began to focus on restructuring the economic policies in 1976, following Mao Zedong. Tiananmen Square Massacre The 1989 event in which the government of China sent troops to Tiananmen Square where one million demonstrators converged and opened fire. General MacArthur Leader of the United Nations forces which attempted to aid the South Koreans in their civil war, but were overcome by China when they entered the war. Vietminh Nationalists in Indochina who fought back against the French, leading to the division of the nation. Ho Chi Minh Leader of the communists who gained control of Northern Vietnam. Ngo Dihn Diem President of the democratic Southern Vietnam. Platt Amendment Amendment which involved the United States in Cuban Affairs, including military bases in Cuba. Batista Dictatorship Dictatorship in Cuba which continued policies that benefited the wealthy landowners. Supported by the United States from 1939 to 1959. Fidel Castro Leader of the peasant revolt in Cuba in 1956, who would take control in 1959 and still holds tremendous power to this day. Cuban Revolution The revolution lead by Fidel Castro which was hailed as a great success against a dictator. President Kennedy President of the United States in 1961 who authorized the Bay of Pigs Invasion and presided over the Cuban Missile Crisis before being assassinated in 1963. Bay of Pigs Invasion Invasion of Cuba by a small force of Cuban exiles authorized by John F. Kennedy, which ended in their capture and no effect on Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis The debacle in which the United States detected the installation of Soviet missiles in Cuba, established a naval blockade around the island, and refused any more shipments from the Soviet Union. A standoff occurred in which it was declared that the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union if missiles were sent from Cuba. In exchange for a promise not to invade Cuba, Russia removed the missiles. Good Neighbor The (sarcastic) name for the United States as defined by the Latin American economic powers, used as complaints about the imperial policies of the United States increased. PRI A single-party rule in Mexico that began during the Cold War. Sandinista Guerillas in Nicaragua and El Salvador during the 1980s. Export Economies Latin American economies that relied on products such as coffee, sugar, fruit, and oil, leading to tremendous debt and weak domestic enemies. Especially a problem during the Cold War. National Action Party Known as PAN, the political party that won the first multi-party election in Mexico, which would go on to win reelection. Hugo Chavez Socialist leader of Venezuela, who has been allowed a third term after an amendment of the constitution. Lech Walesa Leader of the Solidarity movement against the establishment of the Soviet Union in Poland. Solidarity Movement Movement which led to a strike for reform of the communist economic system in Poland. Tadeusz Mazowiecki A member of Solidarity who became Prime Minister of Poland in the first open elections since the end of World War II. Mikhail Gorbachev Leader of the Soviet Union who came to power in 1985, who spearheaded reforms that would inadvertently end the Soviet Union. Glasnost and Perestroika Openness and Restructuring. These were the reforms pushed by Gorbachev in the Soviet Economy. Ethnic Cleansing Nationalistic movements within the former Yugoslavia led to this, in which Muslims were slaughtered by Serbians. Chechnya The Muslim-dominated region of Russia that wanted to break away, using guerrilla warfare and terrorist methods to advance the cause. Federal Name for Russia post-soviet union, with three branches, checks and balances, and an independent court. Vladimir Putin Former KGB agent that was elected President of Russia in 2000 and 2004, and became Prime Minister in 2008. Dmitry Medvedev Elected President of Russia in 2008, appointed Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister. Muslim League League established in India in 1906 to advance the causes of Islamic Indians. Amritsar Massacre The event in which 319 Indians were slaughtered by a British General during a peaceful protest. This catapulted a movement for resistance to imperial power. Mohandas Gandhi The most important voice of the movement for self-rule. He held a philosophy of passive resistance and staged demonstrations to get his point across. Passive Resistance Civil disobedience. Nonviolent protest. Espoused by Gandhi. Muhammad Ali Jinnah Leader of a movement whose aim was to partition the subcontinent of India and form a separate Muslim nation in the northern region. Kashmir City in which the nations of India and Pakistan continue to fight along their borders. Gamal Nasser A general in the Egyptian Army who overture the King of Egypt and established a republic in the 1950s. Algerians Fought a bitter war for independence from France (1954-1962). Ghana Negotiated freedom along with Ghana into a Parliamentary governing style borrowed from England, eventually having a presidential system. Kenya African nation that negotiated their constitution with Great Britain after a brutal crack-down. Angola and Belgian Congo African Nations that overthrew colonial governments but ended embroiled in Civil Wars/Cold War Tensions. Zimbabwe Nation among the last to establish African majority rule in 1980. Also among the last in the alphabet. African Union A union that 52 of Africa's 53 nations belong to, formed in 2001 to replace the Organization of African Unity. Chad, Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Rwanda, and Democratic Republic of Congo Nations that have been wracked by on-going and devastating civil wars since the turn of the 21st century. Tutsi 15 Percent of the population in Rwanda who governed the Hutu during German and Belgian colonial occupation until 1962. Hutu 85 percent of the population in Rwanda, governed by the Tutsi, who revolted in 1962 until 1972 when the government was unseated and led to the establishment of a one-party government in 1981. Juvenal Habyarimana Led a military coup and unseated the government of Rwanda in 1972. Union of South Africa South African government formed by two British colonies and two Boer republics. Apartheid "Separation of the races". System established in South Africa in 1948 which divided the black (80 percent of the population) and white (20 percent) populations. NGOs Non-governmental organizations, an ever-increasing presence in the modern world. Nelson Mandela Leader of the African National Congress, an organization determined to abolish apartheid. He advocated peaceful protest in the 1950s but would be arrested for his peoples' guerrilla warfare, not being released until 1990. He would become President in the first free and open election in the nation's history in 1994. Sharpeville Massacre Event in 1960 in which 67 African National Congress protestors were killed in South Africa. Zionists Jewish nationalists. Arthur Balfour Britain's foreign secretary who issued a declaration that stated the right for a home land for Jews in Palestine. Balfour Declaration Declaration that stated the right for a home land for Jews in Palestine. David Ben-Gurion The first prime minister of Israel, who announced the official creation of the Jewish homeland on May 14, 1948. 1948 Arab-Israeli War War which occurred when Muslims from 6 Arab countries attacked Israel after its establishment. West Bank The remaining portions of Palestine that Israel did not control soon after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Six Days' War 1967 War in which Israelis took total victory and took control of the West Bank from Jordan, the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Europe, and the Golan Heights from Syria. Prime Minister Begin and President Saddat Prime Minister of Israel and President of Egypt who signed the Camp David Accords in 1977. Camp David Accords An agreement which led to Israel pulling out of Sinai and Egypt becoming the first Arab country to recognize Israel's right to exist. Palestine Liberation Organization The PLO, a group dedicated to reclaiming Palestine and establishing a Palestinian state. Intifada "Uprising", an on-again off-again movement that uses terrorism against Israeli citizens. Ariel Sharon Prime Minister of Israel in 2000 who approved the construction of a wall to be built between the West Bank and Israel. Yassir Arafat Palestinian President who largely blocked the Roadmap to Peace until his death in November 2004. Mahmoud Abbas Palestinian President who follow Yassir Arafat who signed a cease-fire with Israel that ended the intifada that began in 2000. Hamas "Islamic Resistance Movement" founded by the Muslim Brotherhood. They openly support terrorist tactics and therefore are often the target of Israeli military attacks. Fatah The elected party of Abbas in the West Bank. Deeply divided with Hamas, and is considered the more moderate of the two groups. Hezbollah A militant Shia group backed by Syria that operates around Israel's border with Lebanon and Syria. Reza Shah Pahlavi Ruler of Iran who ousted the then-ruling shah, who had allowed Persia to fall under European spheres of influence. President Carter Visited Iran to congratulate it on its modernization and westernization programs. This caused Islamic fundamentalists to react badly. Iranian Revolution Event in 1979 when the shah was ousted and sent Iran back to a theocracy. Ayatollah "Mirror of God". Specifically, Khomeini was established in 1979. The leader of Iran. Iran-Iraq War Eight-year war of attrition with neither side gaining much ground until a cease-fire was signed in 1988. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Ultra-conservative mayor of Tehran who was elected President of Iran. Since his election, Iran's place in the world has gotten more complicated. OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Companies. The Middle East united with a few other oil-exporting countries to form this group, in order to wield great power over the economy and regulate their own prices. Saddam Hussein Leader of Iraq as of August 1990 during the invasion of Kuwait. Would stay in power until ousting by the United States in 2003. Persian Gulf War The war in which the United States sent forces in January 1991 to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait. Nur Muhammad Taraki Marxist military leader who requested that thousands of groups be sent to Afghanistan by the Soviet Union to engineer a military coup against the government. Taliban Islamic fundamentalist regime that captured the capital of Kabul in Afghanistan in 1996. Osama Bin Laden Saudi Leader of Al-Qaeda who had a safe haven in Afghanistan due to the Taliban. His ass got shot last year. Al-Qaeda An international terrorist network with a serious distaste for Saudi Arabia and the United States. September 11, 2001 The day that Al Qaeda operatives managed to take control of American passenger planes and fly them into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania, in total killing nearly 3000 people. North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA, a trading block established between the United States, Canada, and Mexico in the early 1990s. European Union Originally the European Economic Community, which formed in 1957. Established a single currency, the euro, used throughout Europe. Special Economic Zones Chinese economic zones which were exempt from the strict controls in the late 1980s, leading to a sharp increase in imports. GATT The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A group that was agreed upon to reduce barriers to international trade. G6 Group of 6, created in 1975 as a forum for the world's major industrialized democracies. Members are the United States, Great Britain, West Germany, Italy, Japan, and Poland. G8 What the G6 expanded into, adding Canada in 1977 and Russia in 1997. G20 A group of 19 nations plus EU representatives, representing key industrialized as well as developing economies.