Unit 5 - Japan During Medieval Times

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Ch. 20 The influence of neighboring cultures of japan. Ch. 21 Heian-kyo: The Heart of Japan's Golden Age. Ch. 22 The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan

regent

one who rules in the name of another as in an uncle ruling for a young king

imperial

belonging to or referring to an emperor

meditation

a spiritual discipline that involves deep relaxation and emptying distracting thoughts from the mind

syllable

a unit of sound in a word, for example "unit" has two syllables,
"u" and "nit"

pagoda

a tower-shaped structure with several stories and roofs

How did Buddhism arrive in Japan?

Buddhism originated in India, then passed through China and Korea before arriving in Japan

Shintoism

a religion based in Japan, marked by worship of nature and reverence for ancestors

What happened in 794?

The emperor Kammu built a new Japanese capital, Heian-kyo.

What began the Heian period?

When Emperor Kammu moved the capital to Heian-kyo and built a city.

Who dominated the imperial court?

Aristocrats—especially the Fujiwara family.

How were people ranked?

By their birth family's rank.

What was prized in the Heian period?

Beauty, elegance, and correct manners.

What did Heian artists create?

New Japanese forms of sculpture and painting.

Who wrote classic works of Japanese literature during the Heian period?

Court women, such as Lady Murasaki.

How did the Heian period end?

In civil war and the rise of new military leaders.

How did the Heian period affect Japan today?

Japan's culture has influenced Japan, especially in literature and drama.

Shogun

- commander~in~chief of a military government.
- capital city of the military govrnment was Kamakura.
- 1st Shogun was Minamoto Yoritomo in 1192.

Samurai

- professional warrior, became the ruling class until 1868 (700 years later).
- Samurai = "those who serve" = intensely loyal.

Rise of the Samurai

- rewarded with land and government jobs.
- in return they served the Shogun.
- trained in warfare, especially archery.
- women also trained and could become Samurai.

Daimyos

- military/warrior lord who was obedient to Shogun.
- supported by his army of Samurai.
- over time, by the 1400's, the Daimyos became so powerful that they set up independent kingdoms and fought each other for power.

Tokugawa

- 1603, Tokugawa Teyasu defeated all other Daimyos and became Shogun, uniting Japan under one leader.
- moved the capitol to Edo/Tokyo.

Samurai Armor

- heavy armor made of rows of small metal plates coated with lacquer and tied together with silk cords.
- shinguards protected legs.
- strong and flexible, so easy to move in.
- box~like panels covered chest and block, metal sleeves, shoulder and hip guards.
- wore fierce masks and iron helmets.

Samurai Weapons

- bows (up to eight feet long) and arrows, spears and swords, fight on horseback.
- long swords used in battle and a short sword for cutting off heads.
- wearing a sword was a sign of Samurai rank and honor.

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