Unit 5 - Japan During Medieval Times
|regent||one who rules in the name of another as in an uncle ruling for a young king|
|imperial||belonging to or referring to an emperor|
|meditation||a spiritual discipline that involves deep relaxation and emptying distracting thoughts from the mind|
|syllable|| a unit of sound in a word, for example "unit" has two syllables,|
"u" and "nit"
|pagoda||a tower-shaped structure with several stories and roofs|
|How did Buddhism arrive in Japan?||Buddhism originated in India, then passed through China and Korea before arriving in Japan|
|Shintoism||a religion based in Japan, marked by worship of nature and reverence for ancestors|
|What happened in 794?||The emperor Kammu built a new Japanese capital, Heian-kyo.|
|What began the Heian period?||When Emperor Kammu moved the capital to Heian-kyo and built a city.|
|Who dominated the imperial court?||Aristocrats—especially the Fujiwara family.|
|How were people ranked?||By their birth family's rank.|
|What was prized in the Heian period?||Beauty, elegance, and correct manners.|
|What did Heian artists create?||New Japanese forms of sculpture and painting.|
|Who wrote classic works of Japanese literature during the Heian period?||Court women, such as Lady Murasaki.|
|How did the Heian period end?||In civil war and the rise of new military leaders.|
|How did the Heian period affect Japan today?||Japan's culture has influenced Japan, especially in literature and drama.|
|Shogun|| - commander~in~chief of a military government.|
- capital city of the military govrnment was Kamakura.
- 1st Shogun was Minamoto Yoritomo in 1192.
|Samurai|| - professional warrior, became the ruling class until 1868 (700 years later).|
- Samurai = "those who serve" = intensely loyal.
|Rise of the Samurai|| - rewarded with land and government jobs.|
- in return they served the Shogun.
- trained in warfare, especially archery.
- women also trained and could become Samurai.
|Daimyos|| - military/warrior lord who was obedient to Shogun.|
- supported by his army of Samurai.
- over time, by the 1400's, the Daimyos became so powerful that they set up independent kingdoms and fought each other for power.
|Tokugawa|| - 1603, Tokugawa Teyasu defeated all other Daimyos and became Shogun, uniting Japan under one leader.|
- moved the capitol to Edo/Tokyo.
|Samurai Armor|| - heavy armor made of rows of small metal plates coated with lacquer and tied together with silk cords.|
- shinguards protected legs.
- strong and flexible, so easy to move in.
- box~like panels covered chest and block, metal sleeves, shoulder and hip guards.
- wore fierce masks and iron helmets.
|Samurai Weapons|| - bows (up to eight feet long) and arrows, spears and swords, fight on horseback.|
- long swords used in battle and a short sword for cutting off heads.
- wearing a sword was a sign of Samurai rank and honor.