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Art and art historical terms of late gothic Europe

gesso

made from glue, gypsum, and/or chalk. used as a ground or primer for a painting on a piece of wood or canvas

maesta

an image of the enthroned madonna and child. maesta means "majesty"

tempera

A type of paint that uses pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue, or casein, also the medium itself.

baptistery

In Christian architecture, the building used for baptism, usually situated next to a church

fresco

Painting (almost always tempera) on lime plaster. The plaster may be dry (fresco secco) or wet (buon fresco)

buon fresco

Type of fresco painting where the pigment is applied while the plaster ground is still wet. The pigment is chemically bound to the plaster

chiaroscuro

In drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark, especially the gradations of light that create the effect of model

grisaille

A monochrome painting done mainly in neutral grays to simulate sculpture

humanism

In the Renaissance, an emphasis on education and expanding knowledge. Also, the exlploration of individual potential, a desire to excel and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty

International Style

A style of art that was popular in the 14th and 15th century particularly among the Court of Burgundy. It was strongly influenced by the work of Simone Martini who combined elements of French Gothic art, Sienese art, and Northern European Art

naturalism

The style of painted or sculptured representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition

perspective

A method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface

polyptich

An altarpiece composed of more than three sections

fresco secco

Painting on dry lime plaster

bubonic plague

A disease carried by fleas on rats that causes boils and death in humans

annunciation

When Gabriel tells Mary that she will give birth to Jesus

visitation

When Mary travels to visit Elizabeth

adoration

When the three wise men (magi) present Christ with gifts

deposition

When Jesus' followers took His body down from the cross

lamentation

The entombment of Jesus when His followers gather to bury Him

resurrection

When Christ raised from the dead 3 days after his death and entombment

ascension

When Jesus assended into heaven from Mount Olive after the ressurection

Florence Cathedral (Duomo)

Arnolfo do Cambio, 1296, Florence, Italian Gothic

Pisa Cathedral Baptistry Pulpit

Nicola Pisano, 1260, marble, Italian Gothic

Vigin and Child Enthroned (Cimabue)

Cimabue, 1280, Florence, tempera and gold on wood panel, 12'x7', Italian Gothic/Proto-Renaissance

Maesta Altarpiece

Duccio, 1308 - 1311, tempera on wood, 7'x13', Italian Gothic/Proto-Renaissance

Virgin and Child Enthroned (Giotto)

Giotto, 1305 - 1310, tempera and gold on wood, 10'x6', Italian Gothic/Proto-Renaissance

Fresco Cycle (Arena Chapel)

Gotto, 1305 - 1306, Italian Gothic/Proto-Renaissance

The Effects of Good and Bad Government

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 1338 - 1339, Italian Gothic/Proto-Renaissance

Life of John the Baptist doors

Andrea Pisano, 1330 - 1336, 19"x17", Italian Gothic/Proto-Renaissance

Well of Moses

Claess Sluter, 1395 - 1506, International Gothic (Burgundian Court)

February from Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry

Limbourg Brothers, 1413 - 1416, Illumination, 8"x5", International Gothic (Burgundian Court)

House of Jacques Coeur (interior courtyard)

1443 - 1451, Bourges, France, International Gothic

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