US History- United States in World War 2

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What was the rallying cry as America entered World War 2?

"Remember Pearl Harbor"

How many Americans enlisted to fight in the war after Pearl Harbor?

5 Million

What does "WAAC" stand for?

Women's Auxiliary Army Corps

Who pushed for the formation of the WAAC?

Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall

What was the WAAC?

Women worked in non-combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots.

What industry did American's convert the auto-industry into?

War industry

What were 4 things the nation's automobile plants began to produce?

Planes, Tanks, Boats, Command Cars

By 1944, how many workers were laboring in the war industry?

18 million

What is the "OSRD"

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Who created the OSRD? For what reason?

FDR created it to bring scientists into the war effort

What did the OSRD focus on in order to locate submarines?

Radar and Sonar

What was the most important achievement of the OSRD?

The secret development of the atomic bomb

Who wrote to FDR warning him that the Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon?

Einstein

What was the Manhattan Project?

The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb

What was the "OPA"

Office of Price Administration

What did the OPA do? Why did FDR create it?

The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation

FDR created this as a response to the threat of prices of goods rising out of control

What was the WPB?

War Production Board

Why did FDR create the WPB?

To ensure the troops had ample resources

What did the WPB do?

decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries

Which group organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper rags, and cooking-fat for recycling?

WPB (WAR PRODUCTION BOARD)

What was the Battle of the Atlantic?

America entered the war and Hitler was determined to prevent foods and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America's east coast; he ordered submarine raids on U.S ships on the Atlantic; Germany sank 87 U.S ships in the first 4 months

What fraction of sailors died during the Battle of the Atlantic?

2/3rds

What was Stalingrad?

A major industrial center

Who won the Battle of Stalingrad?

Allies

How many men did the Soviets lose in the Battle of Stalingrad?

more than 1 million

What was Operation Torch?

an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa

Who launched Operation Torch?

American General Dwight D Eisenhower in 1942

Who led the chasing of the Afrika Korps?

German General Edwin Rommel

During Operation Torch, where did the allied troops land in?

Casablanca, Oran

What two leaders met at the Casablanca meeting?

FDR and Churchill

What were the next two moves that FDR and Churchill planned at the Casablanca meeting?

1) plan amphibious invasions of France & Italy
2) only unconditional surrender would be accepted

During the Italian Campaign, who had Mussolini stripped from power and arrested?

King Emmanuel the 3rd

Who were the Tuskegee Airmen?

All black fighter pilots in WW2

What was Operation Overlord?

Dramatic Invasion of France, also known as D-Day

What date was D-Day?

June 6th, 1994

What was D-Day?

largest land-sea-air operation in military history

What helped elect FDR to an unprecedented 4th term?

The American's people's desire not to "change horses in midstream"

What was the name of the first German town that the American's captured? (Battle of the Bulge)

Aachen

Which battle seemed to be Germany's "last gasp"?

Battle of the Bulge- Germany lost almost everything

Who had discovered the death camps that were set up within Poland?

Soviets

How did Hitler commit suicide?

Gave poison to his wife and shot himself

Who was the wife that Hitler was married to when he committed suicide?

Eva Braun

What did Hitler state in his last note?

He blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it

Who accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich?

General Eisenhower

What was V-E day?

Victory in Europe day

What was the date of V-E day?

May 8th, 1945

What date did Roosevelt die?

April 12th, 1945

Who became president after FDR died?

his VP Harry S Truman

What groups of people were the main Allied forces in the Pacific?

Americans and Australians

What happend in the Battle of the Coral Sea?

May 1942, Allied forces succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five-day Battle of the Coral Sea

Who was Admiral Chester Nimitz?

Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific

What happened in the Battle of Midway?

Japan was headed toward Midway Island, a strategic island northwest of Hawaii, the naval forces moved to defend the island, and the Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircrafts and 250 planes

What does 'kamikaze' translate to?

divine wind

What was Japan's new tactic?

Kamikaze attacks- pilots in small bomb-laden planes would crash into Allied ships?

Which Japanese island did the American soldiers plant the flag on after their victory and was called the most heavily defended spot on earth ?

Iwo Jima

What happend in the battle of Okinawa?

April 1945: U.S marines invaded Okinawa. Japan unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks. Americans lost 7600 marines and Japan lost 110,000 soldiers

After Okinawa, what was Truman's solution instead of invading Japan?

To use the atomic bomb that was worked on in the Manhattan Project

Who warned Japan that without immediate surrender , they would face "prompt and utter destruction?

President Truman

What were the names of the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Who said, "Today the guns are silent, The skies no longer rain death, the entire world is quietly at peace"

General MacArthur

What date did Japan officially surrender?

August 14th, 1945

Who was all at the Yalta Conference in February 1945?

FDR, Churchill, and Stalin

What happend at the Yalta Conference?

A series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar Europe

What were the 3 Yalta agreements?

1) agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after war
2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe
3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S in the war against Japan and join the United Nations

What were the Nuremberg War Trials?

Trial that was held in Nuremberg Germany after the discovery of Hitler's death camps. The Allies put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, peace, and war crimes.

What happened during the seven year occupation?

MacArthur reshaped Japan's economy by introducing free-market economy that led to a remarkable economic recovery

What was the GI Bill of Rights? (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)

It was made to help the returning of servicemen easier. This act provided 7.8 million vets an education

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