Ecology and Ecosystems

34 terms by chenannie 

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Biology

ecology

the study of the interactions of organisms with their environments

environmental interactions

organism, population, community, ecosystem

components of ecosystems

energy flow and chemical cycling

energy flow

passage of energy through the ecosystem

chemical cycling

transfer of materials within the ecocsystem

ecosystem

all the organisms in the community as well as the abiotic environment

trophic structure

a pattern of feeding relationships

food chain

sequence of food (energy) transfer up the trophic levels

producers

support all trophic levels, autotrophs (plants, algae and phytoplankton)

consumers

heterotrophs

trophic levels

producers, consumers, detritivores,

detritivores

decomposers, derive energy from dead matter and wastes

heterotrophs

eat food (can't make it themselves); primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

autotrophs

produce own food (by photosynthesis)

primary consumers

grasshoppers, zooplankton

secondary consumers

mouse, herring

tertiary consumers

snake, tuna

quaternary consumers

hawk, killer whale

food web

a network of interconnecting food chains

primary production

the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy; carried out by producers; produce biomass; "energy budget"

biomass

amount of living organic material in an ecosystem

10% rule

only 10% of the energy present in a trophic level makes it to the next level

nitrogen fixation

converts N2 to nitrogen used by plants; carried out by bacteria

biomes

terrestrial, marine, freshwater

tundra

a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line

grassland

land where grass or grasslike vegetation grows and is the dominant form of plant life

estuary

the wide part of a river where it nears the sea

population

a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time

biotic potential

maximum rate at which a population can increase in under ideal conditions

What 5 factors affect biotic potential?

lifespan, age at first reproduction, frequency of reproduction, clutch size, length of reproduction capability

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a particular species that can survive over long periods of time in a given environment

succession

change in the (plant) species composition of a community over time

disturbance

a temporary change in average environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem, usually resulting in the removal of large amounts of biomass.

tropism

A directional growth movement, made by a part of a stationary plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.

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